A Dictionary Of Arabic Literary Terms And Devices Pdf


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This glossary of literary terms is a list of definitions of terms and concepts used in the discussion, classification, analysis, and criticism of all types of literature , such as poetry, novels, and picture books, as well as of grammar, syntax, and language techniques. For a more complete glossary of terms relating to poetry in particular, see Glossary of poetry terms. Also called lexis or word choice.

Songs With Multiple Literary Devices

This glossary of linguistics, literary and grammatical terms is aimed to be helpful for writers, speakers, teachers and communicators of all sorts, in addition to students and teachers of the English language seeking:.

There are very many different effects of written and spoken language. Most people know what an acronym is, or a palindrome. But what is a glottal stop? What is a tautology , or a gerund? What is alliteration and onomatopoeia? Words alone convey quite basic meaning. Far more feeling and mood is conveyed in the way that words are put together and pronounced - whether for inspiration, motivation, amusement, leadership, persuasion, justification, clarification or any other purpose.

The way we use language - in addition to the language we use - is crucial for effective communications and understanding. The way others use language gives us major insights as to motives, personalities, needs, etc. The study and awareness of linguistics helps us to know ourselves and others - why we speak and write in different ways; how language develops; and how so many words and ways of speaking from different languages share the same roots and origins.

Also, our technical appreciation of language is a big help to understanding language more widely, and particularly word meanings that we might not have encountered before. For example why is a prefix so significant in language? And a suffix? Knowing these and many other aspects of linguistics can dramatically assist our overall understanding of language, including new words, even foreign words, which we might never have seen before.

Some of these language terms and effects are vital for good communications. Others are not essential, but certainly help to make language and communications more interesting, textured and alive - and when language does this, it captivates, entertains and moves audiences more, which is definitely important for professional communicators. Note that many of these words have meanings outside of language and grammar, and those alternative non-linguistic definitions are generally not included in this glossary.

This use of the word a is derived from old English 'an', which is a version of 'one'. Not all words which begin with 'a' are using the 'a' prefix in this way. This can be done by various methods, notably:.

Many abbreviations, after widespread and popular adoption, become listed in dictionaries as new words in their own right. The full original versions of many such abbreviations become forgotten, so that they are not generally regarded as abbreviations for example the words zoo, taxi, phone. Technically an acronym should be a real word or a new 'word' that is capable of pronunciation, otherwise it's merely an abbreviation.

By definition, all acronyms are also abbreviations. Also technically an acronym should be formed from the initial letter of all words in the phrase or word-series. An acronym that is devised in reverse i. See lots of useful and amusing acronyms and bacronyms. From French acrostiche, and Greek akrostikhis, and the root Greek words akro, meaning end, and stikhos, meaning a row or line of verse. For example 'an Australian accent'. Accent may refer more generally to the mood or tone of speech or writing, or technically to emphasis in poetry, and also to musical emphasis, from where the word derives.

There are tens of thousands of others, perhaps hundreds of thousands. A 'sister' term is adverb ,. Out is extended to outage to produce a noun from a preposition. Originally from Greek, allos, other, and agoria, speaking. Allegorical refers to a work of this sort. Alliteration is commonly used in poetry and other forms of writing which seeks to entertain or please people. This is because alliteration itself is a pleasing, almost musical, way of constructing words, both to speak and to hear.

Shakespeare used alliteration a great deal in his plays and other works, as have most other great writers throughout history. Where alliteration involves repetition of syllables and prolonged sounds, rather than merely single consonants or vowel sounds, it may also be defined as reduplication.

Examples of allophones are the different 'p' sounds in 'spin' and 'pin', and the different 't' sounds in 'table' and 'stab'. Commonly the differences between allophones so slight that most people are unaware of them and would consider the sounds to be identical. The word derives from Greek 'allos' meaning other. Ambigrams may comprise upper or lower case letters or a mixture.

Some word combinations naturally produce more pleasing and legible ambigrams than others, requiring very little distortion of the letters. An early example of a 'natural' ambigram is the word 'chump', which in lower-case script lettering reads easily as the same word when viewed upside-down, and this example seems first to have been publicized in Interestingly and coincidentally the word 'ambigram' can be made very easily into an 'upside-down' type of ambigram.

The word ampersand is a distorted derivation from 'and per se'. The symbol is a combination of the letters E and T, being the Latin word 'et' meaning 'and'. More detail about the ampersand origins. The opposite is prolepsis. The term is broadly based on Greek medicinal term analeptikos, meaning 'restorative'. The use of analogies is also beneficial for memory and information retention.

The words are from Greek 'analogos' - ana, 'according to', and logos, 'ratio'. Sadly it is difficult to find any other examples that are not scientifically or otherwise so obscure as to be utterly unremarkable. You will perhaps be able to invent better ones yourself. Another example is "I will eat, go for a walk, then sit in the garden; do you want to do this too?..

A simpler example is "John woke; he rubbed his eyes.. An anaphor is generally used to save time and avoid unwanted repetition. See cataphor, where the replacement word precedes a later word. Firstly, simply, anaphora is the action of using an anaphor a replacement word such as it, he, she, etc in referring to a previous word or phrase, to avoid repetition and to save time.

For example: "People need clothes. People need shelter. People need food.. We shall fight in France, we shall fight on the seas and oceans, we shall fight with growing confidence and growing strength in the air, we shall defend our island, whatever the cost may be.

We shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills; we shall never surrender..

The word epistrophe refers to this effect when used at the end of sentences or clauses. Another often-quoted example of antanaclasis is the motivational threat attributed to American football coach Vince Lombardi: 'If you aren't fired with enthusiasm, you will be fired, with enthusiasm" in which 'fired' firstly means 'motivated', and secondly means 'sacked', or dropped from the team.

For example the following are all very simple anthropomorphic expressions, or anthropomorphisms: a 'Happy Meal'; a 'friendly bar'; a 'weepy movie'; a 'computer that won't behave'; a 'dumb waiter'; a 'drink or chocolate bar that is my best friend'; 'music or art that speaks to me'; a sun image with a smiling face; a wind image of a person's face blowing hard; millions of cartoons and animations, such as cars with faces, or animals with human expressions and personalities; countless logos and brands which contain an image or icon with some sort of human quality or movement a 'kicking K' for example, and anything with a smile or even wearing a hat ; and all those digital media icons with faces.

Anthropomorphism is everywhere, and plays a crucial part in human communications. There that's another one Interestingly the antonym of the word antonym is synonym a word which means the same as or equates to another. The word is Greek originally meaning 'hidden writings', from apokruptein, 'hide away'. Apophony is also called ablaut, alternation, gradation, internal inflection, internal modification, replacive morphology, stem alternation, stem modification, stem mutation, among other variants of these.

Examples are paralipsis and syllogism , and the game 'twenty questions' and the general concept of 'by exception' and the 'process of elimination'. From apt, meaning appropriate, and Latin aptus meaning fitted. Apparently the term was first suggested by Franklin P Adams. Also called an aptonym or charactonym. Argo may also refer to jargon or terminology that is specific to a particular group or discipline, for example military folk, hobbyists, scientists, etc. Also technically, articulation - in referring to the use of airflow and vocal mouth-parts, and encompassing phonation - is one of the most important and fundamental ways by which the development and analysis of language are enabled.

The word articulation is ultimately derived from Latin articulus, 'small connecting part'. See importantly 'places of articulation'. ASCII is a widely used and prevalent system for coding letters and other characters for use on electronic text equipment, notably computers and the internet.

The term is from Greek auto, meaning self, and antonym , in turn from anti meaning against. Also called a contranym , contronym, antagonym, antilogy, enantiodrome, self-antonym, addad, didd, and Janus word. This peculiar phnomenon, called 'enantionymy' and 'antilogy', attracts a high level of interest among linguists, lovers of language and wordplay trivia.

Further suggestions always welcome. Separately autonym refers to a person's real name, the opposite of a pseudonym. And separately again, an autonym may be a name by which a social group or race of people refers to itself. From Greek auto, self. For example: 'We need air to breathe,' or 'Many people find comfort in religion. Certain tautologies which seek to persuade people of a supposedly established viewpoint are commonly presented as being axiomatic, when in fact the basic assumption within the tautology is not actually an axiom, more a matter of opinion.

Many cliches are offered as axioms, when actually often they are subjective, and opposing 'accepted' cliches exist. The word axiom derives from Greek 'axios', worthy. Backslang has been at various times popular among teenagers, and exists as a 'reverse' coded secret slang language in many non-English-speaking cultures. Some backslang expressions enter mainstream language and dictionaries, such as the word yob, a disparaging term for a boy. The full form is commonly a humorous or clever or ironic reference to the word or name spelled by the abbreviation.

See the acronyms and bacronyms listing for lots of examples. For example, "

A Dictionary of Literary Terms and Literary Theory

Literature , a body of written works. The name has traditionally been applied to those imaginative works of poetry and prose distinguished by the intentions of their authors and the perceived aesthetic excellence of their execution. Literature may be classified according to a variety of systems, including language , national origin, historical period, genre , and subject matter. For historical treatment of various literatures within geographical regions, see such articles as African literature ; African theatre ; Oceanic literature ; Western literature ; Central Asian arts ; South Asian arts ; and Southeast Asian arts. Some literatures are treated separately by language, by nation, or by special subject e.

The Arabic word used for literature is " Adab " , which is derived from a meaning of etiquette , and which implies politeness, culture and enrichment. Arabic literature emerged in the 5th century with only fragments of the written language appearing before then. The Qur'an , widely regarded as the finest piece of literature in the Arabic language , [1] would have the greatest lasting effect on Arabic culture and its literature. Arabic literature flourished during the Islamic Golden Age , but has remained vibrant to the present day, with poets and prose-writers across the Arab world, as well as in the Arab diaspora, achieving increasing success. As the literature of the Jahili period was transmitted orally and not written, prose represents little of what has been passed down. The Qur'an , the main holy book , had a significant influence on the Arab language, and marked the beginning of Islamic literature. Muslims believe it was transcribed in the Arabic dialect of the Quraysh , the tribe of Muhammad.

Songs With Multiple Literary Devices poetry personal-pronouns literary-device songs grammatical-person. This domain may be for sale!. This means that the same word, with the same spelling and pronunciation may have more than one meaning. Two themes of the utmost importance to highlight are the oppression of innocent children and the conflict of commercial values versus human values. Then they print out the lyrics and annotate them for tone shifts, patterns, structure, and any other literary devices they can find.


The Dictionary of Arabic Literary Terms covers the most important literary terms relevant to classical and modern Arabic literature. Its + entries include.


Glossary of literary terms

This new dictionary provides clear definitions of the most important literary terms and devices in classical and modern Arabic literature. It covers technical terms and rhetorical devices, themes and motifs, concepts, historical eras, literary schools and movements, forms and genres, and significant figures and institutions. Access to the complete content on Oxford Reference requires a subscription or purchase. Public users are able to search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter without a subscription.

This glossary came to us from our late colleague Ross Scaife, who encountered it during his graduate studies at the University of Texas.

A Dictionary of Arabic Literary Terms and Devices (Oxford Quick Reference)

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This glossary of linguistics, literary and grammatical terms is aimed to be helpful for writers, speakers, teachers and communicators of all sorts, in addition to students and teachers of the English language seeking:. There are very many different effects of written and spoken language. Most people know what an acronym is, or a palindrome. But what is a glottal stop? What is a tautology , or a gerund?

Literary Criticism An Introduction to Theory and Paractice.pdf

This extends from ambiguous sentences which could mean one thing or another up to ambiguous storylines and ambiguous arguments. You can play a role, play a guitar, play a game, or play the fool among other meanings. This sort of ambiguity comes out of the structure of the sentence rather than the words. Or was the victim carrying a book during the attack? Was it a little furry winged creature? Or a baseball bat? Of course, a lot of horror movies end this way!

Literature , a body of written works. The name has traditionally been applied to those imaginative works of poetry and prose distinguished by the intentions of their authors and the perceived aesthetic excellence of their execution. Literature may be classified according to a variety of systems, including language , national origin, historical period, genre , and subject matter. For historical treatment of various literatures within geographical regions, see such articles as African literature ; African theatre ; Oceanic literature ; Western literature ; Central Asian arts ; South Asian arts ; and Southeast Asian arts. Some literatures are treated separately by language, by nation, or by special subject e. Definitions of the word literature tend to be circular.

Literature , a body of written works. The name has traditionally been applied to those imaginative works of poetry and prose distinguished by the intentions of their authors and the perceived aesthetic excellence of their execution. Literature may be classified according to a variety of systems, including language , national origin, historical period, genre , and subject matter. For historical treatment of various literatures within geographical regions, see such articles as African literature ; African theatre ; Oceanic literature ; Western literature ; Central Asian arts ; South Asian arts ; and Southeast Asian arts. Some literatures are treated separately by language, by nation, or by special subject e. Definitions of the word literature tend to be circular. And indeed its central meaning, at least, is clear enough.

Arabic literature

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Diane C.
23.05.2021 at 06:54 - Reply

Over entriesThis new dictionary provides clear definitions of the most important literary terms and devices in classical and modern Arabic literature. It covers.

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26.05.2021 at 00:07 - Reply

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