Human Memory Theory And Practice Baddeley Pdf


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Previous research has assumed that writing is a cognitively complex task, but has not determined if writing overloads Working Memory more than reading and listening. To investigate this, participants completed three recall tasks. These were reading lists of words before recalling them, hearing lists of words before recalling them, and hearing lists of words and writing them as they heard them, then recalling them.

Theories of Human Memory and Their Application In Education. An Overview

How do our memories store information? Why is it that we can recall a memory at will from decades ago, and what purpose does forgetting information served? Below we take a look at some of the most influential studies, experiments and theories that continue to guide our understanding of the function of the human memory. Memory can manifest itself in a variety of ways. When people tie their shoelaces or ride bicycles, they rely on past experiences to execute sequences of motor behaviors that accomplish those tasks.

Such skills are often considered examples of procedural memory. When people identify objects in the environment e. This type of memory is often referred to as semantic memory.

When people remember events, they must attempt to recollect the details of what occurred at a particular place and time. This type of memory is called episodic memory. An influential theory of memory known as the multi-store model was proposed by Richard Atkinson and Richard Shiffrin in This model suggested that information exists in one of 3 states of memory: the sensory, short-term and long-term stores. Information passes from one stage to the next the more we rehearse it in our minds, but can fade away if we do not pay enough attention to it.

Information enters the memory from the senses - for instance, the eyes observe a picture, olfactory receptors in the nose might smell coffee or we might hear a piece of music. This stream of information is held in the sensory memory store, and because it consists of a huge amount of data describing our surroundings, we only need to remember a small portion of it. A sight or sound that we might find interesting captures our attention, and our contemplation of this information - known as rehearsal - leads to the data being promoted to the short-term memory store, where it will be held for a few hours or even days in case we need access to it.

The short-term memory gives us access to information that is salient to our current situation, but is limited in its capacity. Therefore, we need to further rehearse information in the short-term memory to remember it for longer.

This may involve merely recalling and thinking about a past event, or remembering a fact by rote - by thinking or writing about it repeatedly. Rehearsal then further promotes this significant information to the long-term memory store, where Atkinson and Shiffrin believed that it could survive for years, decades or even a lifetime.

Key information regarding people that we have met, important life events and other important facts makes it through the sensory and short-term memory stores to reach the long-term memory.

One strength of the multistore model is that is gives us a good understanding of the structure and process of the STM. This is good because this allows researchers to expand on this model. This means researchers can do experiments to improve on this model and make it more valid and they can prove what the stores actually do.

Therefore, the model is influential as it has generated a lot of research into memory. Many memory studies provide evidence to support the distinction between STM and LTM in terms of encoding, duration and capacity. The model is oversimplified, in particular when it suggests that both short-term and long-term memory each operate in a single, uniform fashion.

We now know is this not the case. It has now become apparent that both short-term and long-term memory is more complicated than previously thought. For example, the Working Model of Memory proposed by Baddeley and Hitch showed that short term memory is more than just one simple unitary store and comprises different components e.

In the case of long-term memory, it is unlikely that different kinds of knowledge, such as remembering how to play a computer game, the rules of subtraction and remembering what we did yesterday are all stored within a single, long-term memory store. Indeed different types of long-term memory have been identified, namely episodic memories of events , procedural knowledge of how to do things and semantic general knowledge.

For instance, the model ignores factors such as motivation, effect and strategy e. Also, rehearsal is not essential to transfer information into LTM. For example, why are we able to recall information which we did not rehearse e.

Therefore, the role of rehearsal as a means of transferring from STM to LTM is much less important than Atkinson and Shiffrin claimed in their model. The models main emphasis was on structure and tends to neglect the process elements of memory e. For example, elaboration rehearsal leads to recall of information than just maintenance rehearsal.

Fergus Craik and Robert Lockhart were critical of explanation for memory provided by the multi-store model, so in they proposed an alternative explanation known as the levels of processing effect. According to this model, memories do not reside in 3 stores; instead, the strength of a memory trace depends upon the quality of processing, or rehearsal, of a stimulus.

Craik and Lockhart distinguished between two types of processing that take place when we make an observation: shallow and deep processing.

Shallow processing - considering the overall appearance or sound of something - generally leads to a stimuli being forgotten. This explains why we may walk past many people in the street on a morning commute, but not remember a single face by lunch time. Deep or semantic processing, on the other hand, involves elaborative rehearsal - focusing on a stimulus in a more considered way, such as thinking about the meaning of a word or the consequences of an event.

For example, merely reading a news story involves shallow processing, but thinking about the repercussions of the story - how it will affect people - requires deep processing, which increases the likelihood of details of the story being memorized. The levels of processing model changed the direction of memory research. It showed that encoding was not a simple, straightforward process. This widened the focus from seeing long-term memory as a simple storage unit to seeing it as a complex processing system.

Craik and Lockhart's ideas led to hundreds of experiments, most of which confirmed the superiority of 'deep' semantic processing for remembering information. It explains why we remember some things much better and for much longer than others. This explanation of memory is useful in everyday life because it highlights the way in which elaboration, which requires deeper processing of information, can aid memory. Despite these strengths, there are a number of criticisms of the levels of processing theory :.

Deeper processing takes more effort than shallow processing and it could be this, rather than the depth of processing that makes it more likely people will remember something. The concept of depth is vague and cannot be observed. Therefore, it cannot be objectively measured. Eysenck claims that the level of processing theory describes rather than explains. Craik and Lockhart argued that deep processing leads to better long-term memory than shallow processing.

However, they failed to provide a detailed account of why deep processing is so effective. Deeper processing goes with more effort and more time, so it is difficult to know which factor influences the results. The ideas of 'depth' and 'elaboration' are vague and ill defined Eysenck, As a result, they are difficult to measure. Indeed, there is no independent way of measuring the depth of processing.

This can lead to a circular argument - it is predicted that deeply processed information will be remembered better, but the measure of depth of processing is how well the information is remembered.

The levels of processing theory focuses on the processes involved in memory, and thus ignore the structures. Therefore, memory is more complex than described by the LOP theory. Both work independently of one another, but are regulated by a central executive, which collects and processes information from the other components similarly to how a computer processor handles data held separately on a hard disk.

This enables us to interact with objects: to pick up a drink or avoid walking into a door, for example. The visuo-spatial sketchpad also enables a person to recall and consider visual information stored in the long-term memory.

The articulatory-phonological loop handles the sounds and voices that we hear. Researchers today generally agree that short-term memory is made up of a number of components or subsystems. The working memory model has replaced the idea of a unitary one part STM as suggested by the multistore model. The working memory model explains a lot more than the multistore model. It makes sense of a range of tasks - verbal reasoning, comprehension, reading, problem-solving and visual and spatial processing.

And the model is supported by considerable experimental evidence. Reading phonological loop ii. Problem solving central executive iii.

Navigation visual and spatial processing. Working memory is supported by dual-task studies Baddeley and Hitch, The working memory model does not over emphasize the importance of rehearsal for STM retention, in contrast to the multi-store model.

Lieberman criticizes the working memory model as the Visuospatial sketchpad VSS implies that all spatial information was first visual they are linked. However, Lieberman points out that blind people have excellent spatial awareness, although they have never had any visual information.

Lieberman argues that the VSS should be separated into two different components: one for visual information and one for spatial. There is little direct evidence for how the central executive works and what it does. The capacity of the central executive has never been measured. The working memory model does not explain changes in processing ability that occur as the result of practice or time.

Prior to the working memory model, U. In a renowned paper published in the journal Psychological Review, Miller cited the results of previous memory experiments, concluding that people tend only to be able to hold, on average, 7 chunks of information plus or minus two in the short-term memory before needing to further process them for longer storage.

For instance, most people would be able to remember a 7-digit phone number but would struggle to remember a digit number. But why are we able to remember the whole sentence that a friend has just uttered, when it consists of dozens of individual chunks in the form of letters? A long word, for example, consists of many letters, which in turn form numerous phonemes.

This process allows us to boost the limits of recollection to a list of 7 separate words. Only through sustained effort of rehearsing information are we able to memorize data for longer than a short period of time.

The Decay theory is a theory that proposes that memory fades due to the mere passage of time. Information is therefore less available for later retrieval as time passes and memory, as well as memory strength, wears away. When an individual learns something new, a neurochemical "memory trace" is created. However, over time this trace slowly disintegrates. Actively rehearsing information is believed to be a major factor counteracting this temporal decline.

It is widely believed that neurons die off gradually as we age, yet some older memories can be stronger than most recent memories. Thus, decay theory mostly affects the short-term memory system, meaning that older memories in long-term memory are often more resistant to shocks or physical attacks on the brain.

Human Memory: Theory and Practice, Revised Edition

Appelbaum, S. The Multi-tasking paradox: perceptions, problems and strategies. Management Decision, 46 9 , Bayliss, D. The complexities of complex span: Explaining individual differences in working memory in children and adults. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, , Bunge, S.

Human Memory : Theory and Practice. Alan D. This new edition of Human Memory: Theory and Practice contains all the chapters of the previous edition unchanged in content plus three new chapters. The first edition was published at a time when there was intense interest in the role of consciousness in learning and memory, leading to considerable research and theoretical discussion, but comparatively little agreement. For that reason, the topic was regretfully omitted. Since that time the field has crystallised, making it possible to incorporate three additional chapters concerning this, the most active area of memory research over the last decade.

How do our memories store information? Why is it that we can recall a memory at will from decades ago, and what purpose does forgetting information served? Below we take a look at some of the most influential studies, experiments and theories that continue to guide our understanding of the function of the human memory. Memory can manifest itself in a variety of ways. When people tie their shoelaces or ride bicycles, they rely on past experiences to execute sequences of motor behaviors that accomplish those tasks. Such skills are often considered examples of procedural memory.


PDF | On Aug 1, , George Ikkos published Human Memory: Theory and Practice, by Alan Baddeley. Psychology Press, Exeter, UK,


Human memory: theory and practice (revised edition)

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Human memory : theory and practice

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This new edition of Human Memory: Theory and Practice contains all the chapters of the previous edition (unchanged in content) plus three new chapters.


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Human memory theory and practice Alan Baddeley

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