Composition Structure And Function Of Nucleic Acid Pdf


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22.05.2021 at 05:03
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composition structure and function of nucleic acid pdf

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DNA structure and function

The code within our DNA provides directions on how to make proteins that are vital for our growth, development, and overall health. DNA stands for deoxyribonucleic acid. DNA is a vitally important molecule for not only humans, but for most other organisms as well. But what does DNA actually do? The complete set of your DNA is called your genome.

E-mail: Martine. Demeunynck ujf-grenoble. Nucleic acids are the structural supports of genetic material and therefore the key factors in many vital cellular processes. The double-stranded right-handed helix is a regular conformation adopted by both DNA and RNA in cells, but an increasing number of results point to the biological importance of alternative structures such as bulges, hairpins, branched junctions or quadruplexes. Progress in the chemical synthesis of oligonucleotides and in the knowledge of the factors that favour a particular conformation has opened new fields of research in molecular recognition and drug design.

Alongside proteins , lipids and complex carbohydrates polysaccharides , nucleic acids are one of the four major types of macromolecules that are essential for all known forms of life. The two DNA strands are known as polynucleotides as they are composed of simpler monomeric units called nucleotides. The nucleotides are joined to one another in a chain by covalent bonds known as the phospho-diester linkage between the sugar of one nucleotide and the phosphate of the next, resulting in an alternating sugar-phosphate backbone. The nitrogenous bases of the two separate polynucleotide strands are bound together, according to base pairing rules A with T and C with G , with hydrogen bonds to make double-stranded DNA. The complementary nitrogenous bases are divided into two groups, pyrimidines and purines.

Nucleic acid

He reported finding a weakly acidic substance of unknown function in the nuclei of human white blood cells, and named this material "nuclein". A few years later, Miescher separated nuclein into protein and nucleic acid components. In the 's nucleic acids were found to be major components of chromosomes, small gene-carrying bodies in the nuclei of complex cells. Unlike proteins, nucleic acids contained no sulfur. Complete hydrolysis of chromosomal nucleic acids gave inorganic phosphate, 2-deoxyribose a previously unknown sugar and four different heterocyclic bases shown in the following diagram. To reflect the unusual sugar component, chromosomal nucleic acids are called deoxyribonucleic acids, abbreviated DNA. Analogous nucleic acids in which the sugar component is ribose are termed ribonucleic acids, abbreviated RNA.

Deoxyribonucleic acid DNA is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions for the development and function of living things. It is often compared to a blueprint, since it contains the instructions to construct other components of the cell, such as proteins and RNA molecules. The DNA segments that carry genetic information are called genes, but other DNA sequences have structural purposes, or are involved in regulating the expression of genetic information. In eukaryotes such as animals and plants, DNA is stored inside the cell nucleus, while in prokaryotes such as bacteria and archaea, the DNA is in the cell's cytoplasm. Other proteins such as histones are involved in the packaging of DNA or repairing the damage to DNA that causes mutations.

Nucleic acid , naturally occurring chemical compound that is capable of being broken down to yield phosphoric acid , sugars, and a mixture of organic bases purines and pyrimidines. Nucleic acids are the main information-carrying molecules of the cell , and, by directing the process of protein synthesis , they determine the inherited characteristics of every living thing. DNA is the master blueprint for life and constitutes the genetic material in all free-living organisms and most viruses. RNA is the genetic material of certain viruses, but it is also found in all living cells, where it plays an important role in certain processes such as the making of proteins. Nucleic acids are naturally occurring chemical compounds that serve as the primary information-carrying molecules in cells.

DNA Explained and Explored

Nucleic acids are vital for cell functioning, and therefore for life. Together, they keep track of hereditary information in a cell so that the cell can maintain itself, grow, create offspring and perform any specialized functions it's meant to do. Nucleic acids thus control the information that makes every cell, and every organism, what it is. Nucleic acids are a macromolecule found in cells. Like proteins and polysaccharides, the other macromolecules, nucleic acids are long molecules made up of many similar linked units.

What Is the Importance of Nucleic Acids?

2.6: Structure and Function - Nucleic Acids

In this section, we will examine the structures of DNA and RNA, and how these structures are related to the functions these molecules perform. We will begin with DNA, which is the hereditary information in every cell, that is copied and passed on from generation to generation. The race to elucidate the structure of DNA was one of the greatest stories of 20th century science.

Nucleic acids are molecules that allow organisms to transfer genetic information from one generation to the next. These macromolecules store the genetic information that determines traits and makes protein synthesis possible. Two examples of nucleic acids include deoxyribonucleic acid better known as DNA and ribonucleic acid better known as RNA.

DNA structure and function

Hydrogen bonds

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Steve Minchin, Julia Lodge; Understanding biochemistry: structure and function of nucleic acids.

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