Lithium Batteries Science And Technology PdfBy Eloise L. In and pdf 22.05.2021 at 19:46 10 min read
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- Lithium-ion battery
- Lithium batteries: science and technology
- [PDF Download] Lithium Batteries: Science and Technology [PDF] Full Ebook
Lithium-Ion Batteries features an in-depth description of different lithium-ion applications, including important features such as safety and reliability.
As battery usage multiplies, so do the specific requirements, with increasing divergence of battery designs and sizes to suit each specific use. A pressing challenge—especially over the next decade—is to develop batteries that will make a significant contribution to reducing and eventually eliminating carbon emissions, in some countries including the UK as early as , to mitigate global warming. Current LIBs are fit for frequency regulation, short-term storage and micro-grid applications, but expense and down the line, mineral resource issues, still prevent their widespread on the grid.
There are many alternatives with no clear winners or favoured paths towards the ultimate goal of developing a battery for widespread use on the grid. Present-day LIBs are highly optimised, operating for months-to-years, with some expected to function for decades.
This is a considerable achievement, given that many of the materials operate outside their thermodynamic stability windows. Instead, the battery survives by forming a passivation layer, or solid-electrolyte interphase SEI , preventing further electrolyte degradation. On the cathode side, Al current collector corrosion is mitigated by the decomposition of the electrolyte salts, again, producing a stable passivation layer.
While some advances were serendipitous, most were the result of extensive and global research efforts, leading to a highly optimised system fit for many purposes. Consequently, our current commercial systems contain materials that are operating with energy densities operating increasingly closer to their fundamental limits, i.
The separators and current collectors are becoming thinner, and batteries are being pushed to higher voltages via surface coatings, electrolyte additives, and morphology optimisation. While much research focusses on making improvements to single components, a holistic approach will be needed to unlock higher energy density while also maintaining lifetime and safety.
Resources are also critical with massive increases in production. This has motivated a re-evaluation of the use of the lower voltage cathode material LiFePO 4. The question then becomes, where next? The route from a lab-scale development to market is long, and since this comment focusses on a vision, we highlight research likely to impact our world in the current decade, but then touch briefly on work needed to achieve global zero-carbon ZC goals in the coming decades.
This is an area with massive ongoing global fundamental and applied research effort. A strong focus is on mitigating degradation, to increase longevity and indirectly cost , and because degradation becomes more severe as the voltages are increased, and, for example, more Ni and Si are added to the cathode and anode, respectively.
It is also hoped that learning from these studies can be generalised and applied to the next generation of battery chemistries. These studies are aided by the impressive development of new experimental and theoretical tools and methodologies, including operando measurements that can study batteries that are closer to the practical device, with improved temporal and spatial resolution and increased sensitivity.
In the case of NMR spectroscopy, one area that the authors focus on, dynamic nuclear polarisation DNP methods, involving the transfer of magnetisation from unpaired electrons to nuclear spins, has been used to enhance the signal of the SEI, or more recently to examine the Li metal—SEI interface 1.
Moving forward, the DNP method is likely to play an increasingly important role in examining the buried interfaces ubiquitous in batteries. We now discuss some specific challenges in more detail. As these positive electrode materials are pushed to ever-higher voltages and nickel contents, increased rates of electrolyte oxidation and surface rock-salt layer RSL growth become increasingly problematic for maintaining practical cell lifetimes, RSL formation generally leading to impedance rise 2 , 3.
RSL formation and the concomitant loss of oxygen have been proposed to be the primary driver of electrolyte oxidation at high voltages, rather than Faradaic currents—affecting materials from LiNiO 2 through to LCO 4 , 5.
Yet many fundamental questions remain. What chemical factors determine the rate of oxygen diffusion and RSL growth? Why and when is singlet oxygen observed and how does it form?
Are electrolyte components oxidised at the electrode surface or in the solution? Core-shell and gradient materials utilise more stable compositions often lower Ni-content near the electrode surface to minimise electrode-electrolyte reactivity and a nickel-rich core stoichiometry to increase energy density. Surface coatings applied via a variety of methods on the electrode material can improve cycling stability and lifetime by scavenging corrosive HF, physical blockage of electrolyte components from reaching the electrode surface, slowing RSL growth by blocking oxygen loss from the active material, and via other chemical reactions with the electrolyte components.
Heat treatments of surface-coated materials can be used to prepare surface-doped materials with improved chemical stability and that inhibit the growth of surface rock-salt layers. One trend in particle morphology research is to increase primary particle sizes i. While the timeline to establish answers is uncertain, these and other basic questions will almost certainly be increasingly studied and debated in the coming years.
New understanding will allow for more strategic development of methods to mitigate degradation pathways Fig. The development of detailed micromechanical models will guide particle morphology optimisation—size and shape—for various materials and applications. However, all of these possible advances hinge on the ability of the field to connect fundamental concepts with the complex multi-process behaviour of modern LIBs and ultimately to demonstrate that this leads to longer lifetime.
For this, increased fundamental understanding, obtained via careful experimental and theoretical studies, is required. However, this is not straightforward: SiO x causes considerable first cycle irreversibly capacity loss associated with the formation of inorganics such as Li 2 O and Li 4 SiO 4 7. A stable SEI does not form on silicon, in part because of the large volume expansion that is a direct consequence of its large capacity.
Alternatively, limiting the range over which the silicon is lithiated minimises the volume expansion, leading to a more stable SEI. Calendaring graphite to increase its practical volumetric energy density will result in more mechanical grinding. While Si will play a role in future battery technologies, a question remains as to the extent and the degree to which the longevity of cells and safety will win out over increased energy density. The answers will vary across sectors, Si mostly likely playing a larger role in batteries where lifetime and safety are less critical.
To increase the volume fraction occupied by active electrode materials—again reducing cost—current collectors and polymer separators have become much thinner over the years.
Higher loadings can also be achieved by increasing the active layer thicknesses, decreasing the binder fraction, and decreasing the porosity. All of these require increased electrolyte ionic transport to maintain rate capability, an area of active research already for fast-charging battery technologies 8. The transport properties and molecular-scale structures of new solution chemistries e. Basic studies—both experiments and calculations—of the physicochemical properties of new electrolyte compositions are expected to continue leading to new materials and insight into their properties.
Beyond this, the structure and stability of the SEI in various solutions and conditions temperature, voltage must be better characterised. Intensive benchmarking and lifetime analysis of these systems remains a present and future need. Finally, their cost and safety of handling will need to be proven before wide or large-scale adoption is possible, the latter representing an important but underrepresented area of study.
Moving away from traditional liquid electrolytes—e. The search for novel LIB electrode materials is an area with considerable challenges. While new materials or morphologies are reported with regularity, to be commercially relevant, they must be scalable. Volumetric and gravimetric energy densities must reflect those of an electrode and not just of those of the materials itself, i. Relatively early on, the Materials Project mined all of the inorganic structure data base ICSD and materials proposed via data mining algorithms including simple swaps of elements while keeping the structure type fixed —at that time more than 10, materials.
While, considerable insight was obtained into what structural features control voltage etc. For example, carbonophosphates were identified, which represented a mineral structure type that had not previously synthesised and tested in battery applications Subsequent structure prediction activities have generated many meta stable structures, but the challenge remains to identify structures that are stable on cycling, for example to oxygen loss particularly at the top of charge, or more generally, to structural reorganisations.
Even if a structure is predicted, it is not currently easy to predict if and how they can be synthesised An area that has received considerable recent attention is coupled transition metal—anion redox.
Challenges are associated with the often-accompanying instability towards oxygen loss and structural changes that accompany Li removal. While not directly linked, many of these chemistries are associated with poor rates,.
The next 10 years will see increased understanding as to how these materials function and how oxygen loss can be mitigated. Perhaps applications will emerge where they can make an impact? We have not touched on the wide range of electrode materials, explored now over many years, which involve displacement or conversion chemistries, where lithiation or sodiation results in partial-to-complete rearrangement of lattices.
Here challenges include rate performance, voltage hysteresis, and lifetime. Lithium metal continues to attract considerable attention as an anode, but Li dendrite formation remains a concern, providing considerable incentive to push towards all solid-state batteries SSBs with solid state electrolytes.
None of the beyond Li chemistries are straightforward, with the possible exception of Na, where many of the learnings for LIBs can be applied. But even here, there are distinct differences, due to the larger size of Na which favours different coordination environments and lattices e. Lithium titanium oxide LTO currently has a relatively modest market in applications—including fast charging—where safety and the ability to operate over a wide temperature window are issues: the anode material operates at 1.
Li, where neither Li plating nor conventional SEI formation are an issue. Alternatives to LTO are being developed which include niobium titanium oxide NTO by Toshiba and niobium tungsten oxide compounds in our laboratory, with potential applications in small-to-grid scale batteries. Batteries with different voltages may be more suitable for new microelectronics applications e. Small primary batteries are currently used to power some remote sensors.
These are projected to be needed in their billions-to-trillions to power internet of things IoT devices, requiring a considerable workforce to replace them, often from difficult locations Could new rechargeable batteries be produced at a low enough cost for the different often bespoke applications? Medical batteries can tolerate higher price margins perhaps allowing batteries with different materials to be developed, but here reliability and safety will be paramount.
We must learn how to control interfacial structures—from the SEI, to the interfaces between two components in a solid state-state battery. Better structural models of these interfaces are needed, to improve our ability to compute the relevant processes with realistic computational resources, and improve our understanding of how they function.
Ideas of self-healing systems have emerged in the polymer space and have been suggested as potential safety shut-down mechanisms, but looking forward, these concepts must translated into cathode and anode chemistry. We must continue to develop new methods to increase our understanding of the multiple non-equilibrium processes in batteries: with increasing technology demands, coupled with ZC goals that dictate reduced and more sustainable energy usage, the need for basic and applied research is more important than ever, with many fundamental scientific challenges remaining in the road ahead.
Hope, M. Jiang, M. Muto, S. Diagnostic analysis by electron microscopy and spectroscopy. Jung, R. Rinkel, B. Electrolyte oxidation pathways in lithium-ion batteries. Chen, Z. Advanced cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries. MRS Bull.
Lithium batteries: science and technology
Commercial lithium-ion Li-ion batteries suffer from low energy density and do not meet the growing demands of the energy storage market. Therefore, building next-generation rechargeable Li and Li-ion batteries with higher energy densities, better safety characteristics, lower cost and longer cycle life is of outmost importance. To achieve smaller and lighter next-generation rechargeable Li and Li-ion batteries that can outperform commercial Li-ion batteries, several new energy storage chemistries are being extensively studied. In this review, we summarize the current trends and provide guidelines towards achieving this goal, by addressing batteries using high-voltage cathodes, metal fluoride electrodes, chalcogen electrodes, Li metal anodes, high-capacity anodes as well as useful electrolyte solutions. We discuss the choice of active materials, practically achievable energy densities and challenges faced by the respective battery systems.
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[PDF Download] Lithium Batteries: Science and Technology [PDF] Full Ebook
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Lithium Batteries: Science and Technology is an up-to-date and comprehensive compendium on advanced power sources and energy related topics. Each chapter is a detailed and thorough treatment of its subject. This volume includes several tutorials and contributes to an understanding of the many fields that impact the development of lithium batteries.
A lithium-ion battery or Li-ion battery is a type of rechargeable battery. Lithium-ion batteries are commonly used for portable electronics and electric vehicles and are growing in popularity for military and aerospace applications. Stanley Whittingham , Rachid Yazami and Koichi Mizushima during the s—s,    and then a commercial Li-ion battery was developed by a Sony and Asahi Kasei team led by Yoshio Nishi in In the batteries, lithium ions move from the negative electrode through an electrolyte to the positive electrode during discharge, and back when charging.
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