Design And Analysis Of Connecting Rod 4s S I Engine PdfBy Nmusdisfuper In and pdf 10.05.2021 at 21:31 10 min read
File Name: design and analysis of connecting rod 4s s i engine .zip
Kakaee, M. Shojaeefard, J.
- Top PDF Comparision Of Materials For Two - Wheeler Connecting Rod Using Ansys
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Show all documents It connects the piston to the crankshaft and is responsible for transferring power from the piston to the crankshaft and sending it to the transmission. There are different types of materials and production methods used in the creation of connecting rods. The most common types of connecting rods are steel and aluminium.
Top PDF Comparision Of Materials For Two - Wheeler Connecting Rod Using Ansys
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. A large majority of light-duty vehicles in the United States are powered with spark-ignition SI engines fueled with gasoline. Several technologies have been developed to improve the efficiency of SI engines.
This chapter updates the status of various SI engine technologies described in the National Research Council report that focused on reduction of fuel consumption NRC, As stated in Chapter 2 of the present report, the objective is to evaluate technologies that reduce fuel consumption without significantly reducing customer satisfaction—therefore, power and acceleration performance are not to be degraded.
The primary focus is on technologies that can be feasibly implemented over the period to The present study examines these SI engine technologies in the context of their incremental improvements in reducing fuel consumption, as well as the associated costs of their implementation.
It also discusses the mechanisms by which fuel consumption benefits are realized along with the interactions that these technologies have with the base-engine architecture. EEA , U. In addition, the expert judgment of committee members whose careers have focused on vehicle and power train design, development, and analysis, as well as the results of consultation with individual original equipment manufacturers OEMs and suppliers, were also incorporated in the estimates.
It is common practice to group engine-efficiency-related factors with their respective process fundamentals i. For example, consider the basic stages of the SI engine cycle that contribute to positive work: heat released during fuel combustion, volumetric expansion, and associated heat transfer.
The factors related to this process can be grouped together as the thermodynamic component. In addition, there are several processes within the engine that mitigate the positive work produced; these can be grouped as either gas exchange losses pumping losses or frictional losses within the engine.
The fundamental aspects of each category of engine efficiency factors are discussed further in the following sections. Thermodynamic factors include combustion interval, effective expansion ratio, and working fluid properties. In consideration of these factors there are some fundamental methods that can be used to improve efficiency, including:. Short combustion intervals— allow for more of the heat of combustion to undergo more expansion and thus yield an increase in positive work.
High compression ratios and late exhaust-valve-opening event—c an be used to influence the expansion ratio in order to improve efficiency. However, these factors are constrained by other considerations. High specific heat ratio of working fluid i. Atmospheric air is preferred over exhaust gas as a combustion diluent thermodynamically, but exhaust emis-.
Optimize timing of spark event— an important factor since this affects the countervailing variables of in-cylinder heat loss and thermodynamic losses. This is discussed in more detail below. Maximum efficiency occurs when the two countervailing variables, heat loss and thermodynamic losses, sum to a minimum.
The optimum spark timing is often referred to as minimum advance for best torque or maximum brake torque MBT. At low to moderate speeds and medium to high loads, SI engines tend to be knock-prone, and sparktiming retardation is used to suppress the knock tendency. Spark-timing adjustments are also made to enable rapid-response idle load control to compensate for such things as AC compressor engagement. For this to be effective, idle spark timing must be substantially retarded from MBT.
Retardation from MBT for either of the aforementioned reasons compromises fuel consumption. Gas exchange or pumping losses, in the simplest terms, refer to the pressure-gradient-induced forces across the piston crown that oppose normal piston travel during the exhaust and intake strokes. The pumping loss that principally affects fuel consumption is that which occurs during the intake stroke when the cylinder pressure and the intake manifold are approximately equal.
The pumping loss component that occurs during the exhaust stroke mainly affects peak power. Both of these oppose the desired work production of the engine cycle and thus are seen as internal parasitic losses, which compromise fuel efficiency.
The main source of friction losses within an SI engine are the piston and crankshaft-bearing assemblies. The majority of the piston-assembly friction comes from the ring-cylinder interface.
The oil-control ring applies force against the cylinder liner during all four strokes while the compression rings only apply minor spring force but are gas-pressure loaded. Piston-assembly friction is rather complex as it constantly undergoes transitions from hydrodynamic to boundary-layer friction. Hydrodynamic piston-assembly friction predominates in the mid-stroke region while boundary-layer friction is common near the top center.
Avoidance of cylinder out-of-roundness can contribute to the minimization of piston-ring-related friction. Crankshaft-bearing friction, while significant, is predominately hydrodynamic and is relatively predictable.
Engine architecture refers to the overall design of the engine, generally in terms of number of cylinders and cylinder displacement.
The engine architecture can affect efficiency mainly through bore-stroke ratio effects and balance-shaft requirements. Trends in power train packaging and power-to-weight ratios have led in-line engines to have under-square bore-stroke ratios i. Under-square ratios tend to be favored for their high thermodynamic efficiency.
This is due to the surface-area-to-volume ratio of the combustion chamber; under-square designs tend to exhibit less heat transfer and have shorter burn intervals. Over-square designs enable larger valve flow areas normalized to displacement and therefore favor power density.
These interactive factors play a role in determining overall vehicle fuel efficiency. Balance-shafts are used to satisfy vibration concerns. These balance shafts add parasitic losses, weight, and rotational inertia, and therefore have an effect on vehicle fuel efficiency. I4 engines having displacement of roughly 1. These are two counter-rotating balance shafts running at twice crankshaft speed. Small-displacement I3 engines have received development attention from many vehicle manufacturers.
These require a single first-order balance shaft to negate a rotating couple. While low-speed high-load operation of small displacement I3 engines tends to be objectionable from a noise, vibration, and harshness NVH perspective, they could be seen as candidate engines for vehicles such as hybrid-electric vehicles HEVs where some of the objectionable operating modes could be avoided.
Parasitic losses in and around the engine typically involve oil and coolant pumps, power steering, alternator, and balance shafts. These impose power demands and therefore affect fuel consumption. Many vehicle manufacturers have given much attention to replacing the mechanical drives for the first three of these with electric drives. Most agree that electrification of the power steering provides a measurable fuel consumption benefit under typical driving conditions.
Fuel consumption benefit associated with the electrification of oil or coolant pumps is much less clear. Electrification of these functions provides control flexibility but at a lower efficiency.
Claims have been made that the coolant pump can be inactive during the cold-start and warm-up period; however, consideration must be given to such things as gasket failure, bore or valve seat distortion, etc. These factors result from. Further discussion on the parasitic losses associated with these types of engine components is provided in Chapter 7 of this report.
Fast-burn combustion systems are used to increase the thermodynamic efficiency of an SI engine by reducing the burn interval. This is generally achieved either by inducing increased turbulent flow in the combustion chamber or by adding multiple spark plugs to achieve rapid combustion. Fluid-mechanical manipulation is used to increase turbulence through the creation of large-scale in-cylinder flows swirl or tumble during the intake stroke. The in-cylinder flows are then forced to undergo fluid-motion length-scale reduction near the end of the compression stroke due to the reduced clearance between the piston and the cylinder head.
This reduction cascades the large-scale fluid motion into smaller scale motions, which increases turbulence. Increased turbulence increases the turbulent flame speed, which thereby increases the thermodynamic efficiency by allowing for reduced burn intervals and by enabling an increase in knock-limited compression ratio by 0.
This decrease in burn interval increases dilution tolerance of the combustion system. Dilution tolerance is a measure of the ability of the combustion system to absorb gaseous diluents like exhaust gas. Exhaust gas is introduced by means of an exhaust-gas-recirculation EGR system or by a variable-valve-timing scheme that modulates exhaust-gas retention without incurring unacceptable increases in combustion variability on a cycle-by-cycle basis.
Combustion variability must be controlled to yield acceptable drivability and exhaust emissions performance. Multiple spark plugs are sometimes used to achieve rapid combustion where fluid-mechanical means are impractical. Here, multiple flame fronts shorten the flame propagation distance and thus reduce the burn interval. High dilution-tolerant combustion systems can accept large dosages of EGR, thereby reducing pumping losses while maintaining thermodynamic efficiency at acceptable levels.
The implementation of this technology is essentially cost neutral. As of the implementation of this technology has become common; therefore, fast burn and strategic EGR is considered to be included in the baseline of this analysis. Many mechanisms to realize variable compression ratios have been proposed in the literature and many have been tested.
However, to date all these attempts add too much weight, friction, and parasitic load as well as significant cost and have therefore not been implemented into production designs Wirbeleit et al. It should be recalled that alterations to the effective compression ratio via intake-valve closing IVC timing adjustments with higher-than-normal geometric compression ratios achieves some of this benefit. IVC timing is the main determinant of this effect Tuttle, Implementations of valve-event modulation VEM typically are referred to as specific technologies such as variable valve timing, variable valve timing and lift, two-step cam phasing, three-step cam phasing, and intake-valve throttling.
VEM aids fuel consumption reduction by means of reducing pumping loss. Pumping loss is reduced by either allowing a portion of the fresh charge to be pushed back into the intake system late IVC during the compression stroke or by allowing only a small amount of the mixture to enter the cylinder early IVC during the intake stroke. It should be noted that any of the VEM schemes that reduce or eliminate the pumping loss also reduce or eliminate intake-manifold vacuum. Alternative means to operate power brakes, fuel vapor canister purge, and positive crankcase ventilation PCV systems, normally driven by intake-manifold vacuum, must then be considered.
To overcome this issue, an electrically operated pump may need to be added. It should also be noted that while the implementation of VEM techniques can boost torque output of a given engine, this report assumes that constant torque will be maintained, leading to engine downsizing.
The fuel consumption benefits listed in the following section consider a constant-torque engine. Prior to the development of a multi-step cam profile system, a cam profile was chosen based on performance compromises.
Engineers were confronted with a tradeoff, as it is difficult to satisfy the needs of both good low-speed torque and high-speed torque with a single cam profile. The cam profiles and timings necessary to maximize these needs are completely different in their characteristics. Over the years, many other companies have developed various implementations of DVVL-type setups, as well as other innovative VEM technologies.
Some newer developments in VEM technology include systems that offer continuously variable lift and duration. These systems attempt to operate throttle-less and rely on varying lift and timing to throttle the incoming air. Throttle-less operation allows a reduction in pumping losses at part load, and thus reduces fuel consumption.
We have presented the topics of Thermal Efficiency and Volumetric Efficiency as methods for estimating the potential output of a given engine configuration. Brake Mean Effective Pressure BMEP is another very effective yardstick for comparing the performance of an engine of a given type to another of the same type, and for evaluating the reasonableness of performance claims or requirements. The definition of BMEP is: the average mean pressure which, IF imposed on the pistons uniformly from the top to the bottom of each power stroke, would produce the measured brake power output. It is simply a tool to evaluate the efficiency of a given engine at producing torque from a given displacement. By looking at equations 8-a and 8-b below, you can easily see that BMEP is simply the torque per cubic inch of displacement, multiplied by a constant. In fact, many talented people in the engine design and development business currently use torque-per-cubic inch "torque ratio" instead of BMEP, thereby avoiding that tedious multiplication process. IF you are interested in the derivation of those relationships, it is explained at the bottom of this page.
Show all documents They observed that before a time of second the transient temperature of all fins was reached to steady state temperature. In order to cool the cylinder, fins are provided on the surface of the cylinder to increase the rate of heat transfer. By doing thermal analysis on the engine cylinder fins , it is helpful to know the heat dissipation inside the cylinder. We know that, by increasing the surface area we can increase the heat dissipation rate, so designing such a large complex engine is very difficult.
PDF | Piston is the part of engine which converts heat and pressure energy This paper illustrate design procedure for a piston for 4 stroke petrol To form a guide and bearing to the small end of the connecting rod and to.
Top PDF A Review on I C Engine Head Fins Design
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Top PDF A Survey on EGR System in 2-Stroke SI Engine in Two Wheeler
Show all documents Lower oxygen concentration results in rich air-fuel blends at diverse areas inside the combustion chamber. This heterogeneous blend does not combust totally and results in higher hydrocarbons, and carbon monoxide discharges. The reason behind low NOx emission utilizing EGR in SI engines are diminished O2 concentration and diminished flame temperatures in the combustible blend.
A connecting rod , also called a con rod , is the part of a piston engine which connects the piston to the crankshaft. Together with the crank , the connecting rod converts the reciprocating motion of the piston into the rotation of the crankshaft. The connecting rod is required to transmit the compressive and tensile forces from the piston, and rotate at both ends. The predecessor to the connecting rod is a mechanic linkage used by water mills to convert rotating motion of the water wheel into reciprocating motion.
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. A large majority of light-duty vehicles in the United States are powered with spark-ignition SI engines fueled with gasoline. Several technologies have been developed to improve the efficiency of SI engines. This chapter updates the status of various SI engine technologies described in the National Research Council report that focused on reduction of fuel consumption NRC, As stated in Chapter 2 of the present report, the objective is to evaluate technologies that reduce fuel consumption without significantly reducing customer satisfaction—therefore, power and acceleration performance are not to be degraded.
ing piston engine. 7Characteristic parameters of. internal combustion engines. (ICE). A review of the characteristic parameters of.
BMEP: An important performance yardstick
A connecting rod , also called a con rod , is the part of a piston engine which connects the piston to the crankshaft. Together with the crank , the connecting rod converts the reciprocating motion of the piston into the rotation of the crankshaft. The connecting rod is required to transmit the compressive and tensile forces from the piston, and rotate at both ends. The predecessor to the connecting rod is a mechanic linkage used by water mills to convert rotating motion of the water wheel into reciprocating motion. The most common usage of connecting rods is in internal combustion engines or on steam engines. The earliest evidence for a connecting rod appears in the late 3rd century AD Roman Hierapolis sawmill. It also appears in two 6th century Eastern Roman saw mills excavated at Ephesus respectively Gerasa.
A four-stroke also four-cycle engine is an internal combustion IC engine in which the piston completes four separate strokes while turning the crankshaft. A stroke refers to the full travel of the piston along the cylinder, in either direction. The four separate strokes are termed:. Nicolaus August Otto was a traveling salesman for a grocery concern. In his travels, he encountered the internal combustion engine built in Paris by Belgian expatriate Jean Joseph Etienne Lenoir. The Lenoir engine ran on illuminating gas made from coal, which had been developed in Paris by Philip Lebon. In testing a replica of the Lenoir engine in , Otto became aware of the effects of compression on the fuel charge.
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Черный ход представлял собой несколько строк хитроумной программы, которые вставил в алгоритм коммандер Стратмор. Они были вмонтированы так хитро, что никто, кроме Грега Хейла, их не заметил, и практически означали, что любой код, созданный с помощью Попрыгунчика, может быть взломан секретным паролем, известным только АНБ. Стратмору едва не удалось сделать предлагаемый стандарт шифрования величайшим достижением АНБ: если бы он был принят, у агентства появился бы ключ для взлома любого шифра в Америке. Люди, знающие толк в компьютерах, пришли в неистовство. Фонд электронных границ, воспользовавшись вспыхнувшим скандалом, поносил конгресс за проявленную наивность и назвал АНБ величайшей угрозой свободному миру со времен Гитлера.
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Dynamic Calculation of an engine with supercharging. crankshaft and connecting rod have remained basically unchanged since the late. s. The main patented () a double-acting, electric spark-ignition internal combustion engine fueled unlike 90 degree V fours and horizontally opposed 'boxer' 4 cylinders.