Primary And Secondary Skin Lesions PdfBy Langley P. In and pdf 11.05.2021 at 03:43 5 min read
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- Primary Skin Lesions
- The Basics: Skin Types, Definitions, and Differentials
- Skin condition
- The Basics: Skin Types, Definitions, and Differentials
Integumentary System. Lesson 3: Primary and Secondary Skin Lesions. Table of Contents.
A skin condition , also known as cutaneous condition , is any medical condition that affects the integumentary system —the organ system that encloses the body and includes skin , hair , nails , and related muscle and glands. Conditions of the human integumentary system constitute a broad spectrum of diseases, also known as dermatoses, as well as many nonpathologic states like, in certain circumstances, melanonychia and racquet nails. Clinically, the diagnosis of any particular skin condition is made by gathering pertinent information regarding the presenting skin lesion s , including the location such as arms, head, legs , symptoms pruritus , pain , duration acute or chronic , arrangement solitary, generalized, annular, linear , morphology macules, papules , vesicles , and color red, blue, brown, black, white, yellow.
Primary Skin Lesions
Written and peer-reviewed by physicians—but use at your own risk. Read our disclaimer. Dermatology is the branch of medicine concerned with the skin , hair , and nails , as well as the conditions associated with them. In the United States, the most common conditions seen by dermatologists include acne , actinic keratoses , non- melanoma skin cancers, benign tumors , and contact dermatitis.
Skin lesions may be primary or secondary. Primary lesions e. Secondary lesions such as scales or ulcers may develop from primary lesions or result from external trauma e. Dermatological conditions can often be diagnosed based on patient history and physical examination but may require laboratory testing or biopsy to confirm the diagnosis.
Dermatological diseases are managed with medication topical and systemic and procedures such as surgery, cryotherapy , radiotherapy , or phototherapy. Topical treatments are often the first choice because they cause fewer systemic side effects and are easily administered. The hands, mouth, scalp, and nails should not be overlooked during a dermatological examination. Many systemic diseases can manifest with findings on the patient's hands.
References:  . Flat, red-purple , pinpoint lesions in size. References:    . The external nature of the skin allows a variety of treatment options, including:.
Drugs must be absorbed into the skin to be effective, so choosing the proper type of topical preparation for the pharmacological agent is important.
Examples include:. Topical steroids are the most frequently used topical treatment in dermatology. References:  . Try free for 5 days. Principles of dermatology Last updated: December 18, Summary Dermatology is the branch of medicine concerned with the skin , hair , and nails , as well as the conditions associated with them.
Patient history Chief complaint : Begin with open-ended question to address the patient's main concerns. History of present illness Onset and duration Morphology and type of lesions Symptoms Pruritus Sensitivity to light Pain Fever Past medical history : Underlying diseases may be responsible for skin findings e. Drug history : Drug interactions may lead to skin irritations, so it is important to note any changes in the patient's drug regimen.
Review of systems : Diseases such as diabetes , rheumatic diseases, infections, and endocrine disorders hyperthyroidism may lead to skin conditions. Taking a family history of skin diseases helps to determine the correct diagnosis. For example, if a family history of atopic disease is noted, a child experiencing chronic itching in the antecubital and popliteal fossae can be more easily diagnosed with atopic dermatitis.
Social history Certain skin conditions may be due to work-related chemical exposure. In patients with genital ulcers , sexual history must be taken into account. Sexual partners may need to be treated as well. Examination techniques Inspection Palpation: evaluation of consistency e. Skin examination  Determine the type of lesion: See primary skin lesions , secondary skin lesions , and complex skin lesions below.
Secondary Lesions Description Scale dermatology Thickened stratum corneum Scales are flaky , dry and usually whitish. In contrast, crust is often moist and yellowish or brown.
Erosion Loss of all or portions of the epidermis Excoriation scratch marks Abrasion produced by mechanical force , usually involving the epidermis but sometimes reaching the outer layer of the dermis Necrosis Dead skin tissue Skin atrophy Thinning of skin without inflammation Scar Composed of new connective tissue that has replaced lost substance An overgrowth of scar tissue manifests as keloid thickened, raised tissue that grows beyond the borders of the scar and shows no regression.
Complex lesions Description Hemorrhage Hematoma Caused by bleeding into subcutaneous tissue , muscle, organ tissue or a cavity Immediately after trauma: red Cause: Hemoglobin is released. After 4—7 days : dark green Cause: The heme part of hemoglobin breaks down into biliverdin. After 7 days : yellow; brownish Cause: Biliverdin breaks down into bilirubin. Dermatopathology Histopathologic finding Characteristics Examples Acantholysis Separation of epidermal cells due to dissolution of intercellular bridges e.
Updated: January 1, Accessed: September 3, Description of Skin Lesions. Updated: June 1, Accessed: May 15, Updated: May 15, Evaluating the child with purpura.
Am Fam Physician. Learning Module: Petechiae, Purpura and Vasculitis. Updated: December 10, Raffini L. Evaluation of Purpura in Children. In: Post TW, ed. Last updated: March 28, Approach to Dermatologic Diagnosis. Last updated: July 14, Last updated: March 29, Accessed: February 20, Principles of Topical Dermatologic Therapy.
Updated: March 1, Lookingbill and Marks' Principles of Dermatology. Saunders Elsevier ; Amirlak B. Skin Anatomy. Updated: July 18, Structure of Normal Skin. Layers of the Skin. Zhang S-X. An Atlas of Histology. Nail pitting Onycholysis. Nail clubbing. Koilonychia spoon nails. Iron deficiency. White, grey, or yellowish color with dullness and crumbling of the nail. Onychomycosis fungal infection. Mees' lines horizontal lines of discoloration.
Heavy metal poisoning History of chemotherapy Renal failure. Palmar erythema. Hyperpigmentation of the palms. Low levels of cortisol. Digital clubbing nail clubbing. Heberden nodes : N odular thickening on the dorsal side of the distal interphalangeal joints DIP. Bouchard nodes : appear at the proximal interphalangeal joints PIP. Symmetrical swelling of proximal and distal interphalangeal joints Swan neck deformity Ulnar deviation of the fingers.
Rheumatoid arthritis. Gottron papules. Dupuytren contracture -. Trauma or idiopathic. Janeway lesions Osler nodes. Reduced skin turgor "standing skin folds". Well-circumscribed , pruritic , and erythematous papule or plaque with dermal edema and irregular borders e.
Vesicle filled with pus e. Thickened stratum corneum Scales are flaky , dry and usually whitish. Dried exudates such as pus or blood E. Linear cr ack through the epidermis that extends into the dermis. Rounded or irregularly shaped deeper lesions that result from loss of the epidermis and some portion of the dermis. Loss of all or portions of the epidermis. Abrasion produced by mechanical force , usually involving the epidermis but sometimes reaching the outer layer of the dermis. Dead skin tissue.
The Basics: Skin Types, Definitions, and Differentials
Primary skin lesions are those which develop as a direct result of the disease process. Secondary lesions are those which evolve from primary lesions or develop as a consequence of the patient's activities. This classification is naturally artificial; the same lesion type might be a primary lesion in one disease but a secondary lesion in another eg alopecia is a primary lesion in canine hypothyroidism [direct consequence of lack of thyroxine] but a secondary lesion in feline flea allergy [caused by the patient: hair removed by the itchy cat]. Do not confuse the term "secondary lesion" with "secondary pyoderma". The latter term implies a bacterial infection which is complicating an underlying skin disease common examples in dogs include allergy or demodicosis but that secondary pyoderma may present with primary lesions such as papules and pustules. Introduction to Skin Lesions 3 of 6 Definitions of Primary and Secondary Lesions Primary skin lesions are those which develop as a direct result of the disease process.
Discrepancies in the terminology of elementary lesions persist when texts from Dermatology and Semiology books are compared, which can cause some confusion in both the teaching of undergraduate medical students and the learning acquired by professionals in the field. This review aims to compare and clarify the differences in the description of elementary lesions by many authors, used as references for specialists in dermatology.
The Basics: Skin Types, Definitions, and Differentials
Secondary lesions are those lesions that are characteristically brought about by modification of the primary lesion either by the individual with the lesion or through the natural evolution of the lesion in the environment. Tasneem Poonawalla, M. Core Concepts of Pediatrics. Secondary lesions Secondary lesions are those lesions that are characteristically brought about by modification of the primary lesion either by the individual with the lesion or through the natural evolution of the lesion in the environment. Atrophy : localized shrinking of the skin which results in paper-thin, wrinkled skin with easily visible vessels. Results from loss of epidermis, dermis or both.
If your institution subscribes to this resource, and you don't have a MyAccess Profile, please contact your library's reference desk for information on how to gain access to this resource from off-campus. Please consult the latest official manual style if you have any questions regarding the format accuracy. Identification and classification of a patient's skin lesions are important steps in the diagnosis of any skin disorder. The numerous descriptive terms used in dermatology can be overwhelming and at times confusing as there are some variations in the use and meaning of these words in the literature. Using proper terminology to describe skin findings is essential for both documentation and communication with other clinicians. The effort to use precise descriptive terms also encourages a clinician to look with more care and more closely at a patient's skin lesions.
Written and peer-reviewed by physicians—but use at your own risk. Read our disclaimer. Dermatology is the branch of medicine concerned with the skin , hair , and nails , as well as the conditions associated with them. In the United States, the most common conditions seen by dermatologists include acne , actinic keratoses , non- melanoma skin cancers, benign tumors , and contact dermatitis. Skin lesions may be primary or secondary. Primary lesions e. Secondary lesions such as scales or ulcers may develop from primary lesions or result from external trauma e.
- Я спущусь вниз, в подсобное помещение, и выключу рубильник. Стратмор медленно повернулся. Он являл собой печальное зрелище. - Это сделаю я, - сказал он, встал и, спотыкаясь, начал выбираться из-за стола. Сьюзан, чуть подтолкнув, усадила его на место.
- Но пока этого не произошло, мы в цейтноте. Сьюзан открыла рот, желая сказать, что она все понимает, но ее слова были заглушены внезапным пронзительным звуком. Тишина шифровалки взорвалась сигналом тревоги, доносившимся из служебного помещения ТРАНСТЕКСТА. Сьюзан и Стратмор в недоумении посмотрели друг на друга. - Что это? - вскрикнула Сьюзан между сигналами.
Даже за широким кольцом терминалов она почувствовала резкий запах одеколона и поморщилась. - Замечательный одеколон, Грег. Вылил целую бутылку. Хейл включил свой компьютер.
Конечно, нет! - возмущенно ответила девушка. Она смотрела на него невинными глазами, и Беккер почувствовал, что она держит его за дурака. - Да будет. На вид вы человек состоятельный. Дайте немножко денег, чтобы я могла вернуться домой.
Беккер убрал руку.