Encyclopedia Of Space Science And Technology Pdf


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Encyclopedia of Physical Science and Technology

Humans have always looked at the heavens and wondered about the nature of the objects seen in the night sky. Well before technology made these achievements possible, however, space exploration had already captured the minds of many people, not only aircraft pilots and scientists but also writers and artists.

Achieving spaceflight enabled humans to begin to explore the solar system and the rest of the universe, to understand the many objects and phenomena that are better observed from a space perspective, and to use for human benefit the resources and attributes of the space environment.

All of these activities—discovery, scientific understanding, and the application of that understanding to serve human purposes—are elements of space exploration. For a general discussion of spacecraft , launch considerations, flight trajectories, and navigation , docking, and recovery procedures, see spaceflight.

Although the possibility of exploring space has long excited people in many walks of life, for most of the latter 20th century and into the early 21st century, only national governments could afford the very high costs of launching people and machines into space. This reality meant that space exploration had to serve very broad interests, and it indeed has done so in a variety of ways. Government space programs have increased knowledge, served as indicators of national prestige and power, enhanced national security and military strength, and provided significant benefits to the general public.

In areas where the private sector could profit from activities in space, most notably the use of satellites as telecommunication relays, commercial space activity has flourished without government funding. In the early 21st century, entrepreneurs believed that there were several other areas of commercial potential in space, most notably privately funded space travel.

In the years after World War II , governments assumed a leading role in the support of research that increased fundamental knowledge about nature, a role that earlier had been played by universities, private foundations, and other nongovernmental supporters. This change came for two reasons. First, the need for complex equipment to carry out many scientific experiments and for the large teams of researchers to use that equipment led to costs that only governments could afford.

Second, governments were willing to take on this responsibility because of the belief that fundamental research would produce new knowledge essential to the health, the security, and the quality of life of their citizens.

Thus, when scientists sought government support for early space experiments, it was forthcoming. Since the start of space efforts in the United States , the Soviet Union , and Europe , national governments have given high priority to the support of science done in and from space. From modest beginnings, space science has expanded under government support to include multibillion-dollar exploratory missions in the solar system. Examples of such efforts include the development of the Curiosity Mars rover, the Cassini-Huygens mission to Saturn and its moons, and the development of major space-based astronomical observatories such as the Hubble Space Telescope.

Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev in used the fact that his country had been first to launch a satellite as evidence of the technological power of the Soviet Union and of the superiority of communism.

Although U. Dwight D. Eisenhower had decided not to compete for prestige with the Soviet Union in a space race, his successor, John F. Kennedy , had a different view. Other countries also viewed having a successful space program as an important indicator of national strength.

Even before the first satellite was launched, U. Following on the success of its photoreconnaissance satellites, which began operation in , the United States built increasingly complex observation and electronic-intercept intelligence satellites.

The Soviet Union also quickly developed an array of intelligence satellites, and later a few other countries instituted their own satellite observation programs.

Intelligence-gathering satellites have been used to verify arms-control agreements, provide warnings of military threats, and identify targets during military operations, among other uses. In addition to providing security benefits, satellites offered military forces the potential for improved communications, weather observation, navigation, timing, and position location.

This led to significant government funding for military space programs in the United States and the Soviet Union. Although the advantages and disadvantages of stationing force-delivery weapons in space have been debated, as of the early 21st century, such weapons had not been deployed , nor had space-based antisatellite systems—that is, systems that can attack or interfere with orbiting satellites.

The stationing of weapons of mass destruction in orbit or on celestial bodies is prohibited by international law. Governments realized early on that the ability to observe Earth from space could provide significant benefits to the general public apart from security and military uses.

The first application to be pursued was the development of satellites for assisting in weather forecasting. A second application involved remote observation of land and sea surfaces to gather imagery and other data of value in crop forecasting, resource management, environmental monitoring, and other applications.

The U. These satellites quickly found numerous civilian uses in such areas as personal navigation, surveying and cartography, geology, air-traffic control , and the operation of information-transfer networks. They illustrate a reality that has remained constant for a half century—as space capabilities are developed, they often can be used for both military and civilian purposes.

Another space application that began under government sponsorship but quickly moved into the private sector is the relay of voice, video, and data via orbiting satellites. Satellite telecommunications has developed into a multibillion-dollar business and is the one clearly successful area of commercial space activity.

A related, but economically much smaller, commercial space business is the provision of launches for private and government satellites. In a privately financed venture sent a piloted spacecraft, SpaceShipOne , to the lower edge of space for three brief suborbital flights. Although it was technically a much less challenging achievement than carrying humans into orbit, its success was seen as an important step toward opening up space to commercial travel and eventually to tourism.

More than 15 years after SpaceShipOne reached space, several firms were poised to carry out such suborbital flights. Companies have arisen that also use satellite imagery to provide data for business about economic trends. Suggestions have been made that in the future other areas of space activity, including using resources found on the Moon and near-Earth asteroids and the capture of solar energy to provide electric power on Earth , could become successful businesses. Most space activities have been pursued because they serve some utilitarian purpose, whether increasing knowledge, adding to national power, or making a profit.

Until humans resume such journeys of exploration, robotic spacecraft will continue to serve in their stead to explore the solar system and probe the mysteries of the universe. Space exploration Article Media Additional Info. Article Contents. Table Of Contents. While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions.

Facebook Twitter. Give Feedback External Websites. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article requires login. External Websites. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. John M. Logsdon John M. Britannica Quiz. Human Exploration: From Earth to Space. Was Australia the last continent to be discovered? Who was the first human to orbit Earth? From treks through the South Pole to launches into space, test your knowledge of human exploration in this quiz.

This detail of a composite image taken by the Earth-orbiting Hubble Space Telescope reveals a glowing column of dust and cold gas populated by embryonic stars forming from molecular hydrogen within the column.

Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Subscribe Now. Learn about the various scientific efforts to study the planet Mars, including the Curiosity rover. Two U. Corona reconnaissance satellite images made a year apart—in mid top and mid bottom —revealing the construction of a new Soviet SS-7 Saddler R intercontinental ballistic missile site.

The first series of U. TIROS spacecraft, placed into Earth orbit —65, paved the way for the development of satellite systems to conduct routine daily weather and atmospheric monitoring. Load Next Page.

Encyclopedia of space science and technology

This content was uploaded by our users and we assume good faith they have the permission to share this book. If you own the copyright to this book and it is wrongfully on our website, we offer a simple DMCA procedure to remove your content from our site. Start by pressing the button below! Encyclopedia of space science and technology Home Encyclopedia of space science and technology. Silveira Principal Engineer, Aerospace Corp.

Humans have always looked at the heavens and wondered about the nature of the objects seen in the night sky. Well before technology made these achievements possible, however, space exploration had already captured the minds of many people, not only aircraft pilots and scientists but also writers and artists. Achieving spaceflight enabled humans to begin to explore the solar system and the rest of the universe, to understand the many objects and phenomena that are better observed from a space perspective, and to use for human benefit the resources and attributes of the space environment. All of these activities—discovery, scientific understanding, and the application of that understanding to serve human purposes—are elements of space exploration. For a general discussion of spacecraft , launch considerations, flight trajectories, and navigation , docking, and recovery procedures, see spaceflight. Although the possibility of exploring space has long excited people in many walks of life, for most of the latter 20th century and into the early 21st century, only national governments could afford the very high costs of launching people and machines into space.

It provides unprecedented, peer-reviewed coverage in more than separate entries comprising 38 topical sections. ESST establishes a foundation for the many sustainability and policy evaluations being performed in institutions worldwide. An indispensable resource for scientists and engineers in developing new technologies and for applying existing technologies to sustainability, the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology is presented at the university and professional level needed for scientists, engineers, and their students to support real progress in sustainability science and technology. Although the emphasis is on science and technology rather than policy, the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology is also a comprehensive and authoritative resource for policy makers who want to understand the scope of research and development and how these bottom-up innovations map on to the sustainability challenge. Skip to main content Skip to table of contents.

Encyclopedia of Physical Science and Technology

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Information acquisition and management has always had a profound impact on societal and organizational progression. However, as computing dramatically advances the level of intelligence associated with management technologies, the breadth of their dispersal, and ultimately the impact of the information itself, the utilization and management of information science and technology also gains profound importance. This change-driven environment creates a critical need for a comprehensive, up-to-date reference encompassing the full range of concepts, issues, methods, technologies, and trends associated with the field.

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Encyclopedia of Physical Science and Technology

Nine years has passed since the second edition of the encyclopedia was published. This completely revised third edition, which is a university and professional level compendium of chemistry, molecular biology, mathematics, and engineering, is refreshed with numerous articles about current research in these fields. For example, the new edition has an increased emphasis on information processing and biotechnology, reflecting the rapid growth of these areas. The continuing Editor-in-Chief, Robert Meyers, and the Board prepared a new topical outline of physical science and technology to define complete coverage. Section editors are either Nobel Laureates or editors of key journals in their fields. Additional Board members representing the global scientific community were also recruited. The new volume edition of the Encyclopedia of Physical Science and Technology, Third Edition , will have the added feature of an Index Volume, containing abstracts of all of the articles in the encyclopedia.

Humans have always looked at the heavens and wondered about the nature of the objects seen in the night sky. Well before technology made these achievements possible, however, space exploration had already captured the minds of many people, not only aircraft pilots and scientists but also writers and artists. Achieving spaceflight enabled humans to begin to explore the solar system and the rest of the universe, to understand the many objects and phenomena that are better observed from a space perspective, and to use for human benefit the resources and attributes of the space environment. All of these activities—discovery, scientific understanding, and the application of that understanding to serve human purposes—are elements of space exploration. For a general discussion of spacecraft , launch considerations, flight trajectories, and navigation , docking, and recovery procedures, see spaceflight. Although the possibility of exploring space has long excited people in many walks of life, for most of the latter 20th century and into the early 21st century, only national governments could afford the very high costs of launching people and machines into space.

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