Management And Motivation Vroom PdfBy Marthe B. In and pdf 12.05.2021 at 18:51 3 min read
File Name: management and motivation vroom .zip
The Expectancy Theory of Motivation is best described as a process theory. With research pioneered by Edward C. Tolman and continued by Victor H. Vroom, Expectancy Theory provides an explanation of why individuals choose one behavioral option over others.
Vroom's Expectancy Theory
These 3 factors interact together to create a motivational force for an employee to work towards pleasure and avoid pain. The formula for this force is:. First Order Outcome is the behavior that results directly from the the effort an employee expends on the job. Second Order Outcome is anything good or bad that results from a first-order outcome. Contributors : Leopold De Sousa. Vroom took inspiration from this and worked on a general formulation of a theory dealing with the interaction of individual differences and situational variables.
Vroom’s Expectancy Theory
Whereas Maslow and Herzberg look at the relationship between internal needs and the resulting effort expended to fulfil them, Vroom's expectancy theory separates effort which arises from motivation , performance, and outcomes. Vroom's expectancy theory assumes that behavior results from conscious choices among alternatives whose purpose it is to maximize pleasure and to minimize pain. Vroom realized that an employee's performance is based on individual factors such as personality, skills, knowledge, experience and abilities. He stated that effort, performance and motivation are linked in a person's motivation. He uses the variables Expectancy, Instrumentality and Valence to account for this. Expectancy is the belief that increased effort will lead to increased performance i.
Yale School of Management
Expectancy theory, initially put forward by Victor Vroom at the Yale School of Management, suggests that behavior is motivated by anticipated results or consequences. For example, people will be willing to work harder if they think the extra effort will be rewarded. In essence, individuals make choices based on estimates of how well the expected results of a given behavior are going to match up with or eventually lead to the desired results. Expectancy theory has three components: expectancy, instrumentality, and valence. Instrumentality is low when the outcome is vague or uncertain, or if the outcome is the same for all possible levels of performance.
However, at the core of the theory is the cognitive process of how an individual processes the different motivational elements. This is done before making the ultimate choice. The outcome is not the sole determining factor in making the decision of how to behave. Expectancy theory is about the mental processes regarding choice , or choosing.
This article describes Expectancy Theory by Victor Vroom in a practical way. After reading you will understand the definition and basics of this powerful motivation theory. Vroom distinguishes between the effort people put in, their performance and the final result. His theory primarily relates to motivation within a work environment.
Together with Edward Lawler and Lyman Porter, Victor Vroom suggested that the relationship between people's behavior at work and their goals was not as simple as was first imagined by other scientists.