Anatomy And Physiology Digestive System Notes Pdf


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anatomy and physiology digestive system notes pdf

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The gastrointestinal tract GIT consists of a hollow muscular tube starting from the oral cavity, where food enters the mouth, continuing through the pharynx, oesophagus, stomach and intestines to the rectum and anus, where food is expelled. There are various accessory organs that assist the tract by secreting enzymes to help break down food into its component nutrients. Thus the salivary glands, liver, pancreas and gall bladder have important functions in the digestive system.

The digestive system uses mechanical and chemical activities to break food down into absorbable substances during its journey through the digestive system. Table Visit this site for an overview of digestion of food in different regions of the digestive tract. Note the route of non-fat nutrients from the small intestine to their release as nutrients to the body. The processes of digestion include six activities: ingestion, propulsion, mechanical or physical digestion, chemical digestion, absorption, and defecation.

23.2 Digestive System Processes and Regulation

The gastrointestinal tract , GI tract , GIT , digestive tract , digestion tract , alimentary canal is the tract from the mouth to the anus which includes all the organs of the digestive system in humans and other animals. Food taken in through the mouth is digested to extract nutrients and absorb energy, and the waste expelled as feces. The mouth , esophagus , stomach and intestines are all part of the gastrointestinal tract. Gastrointestinal is an adjective meaning of or pertaining to the stomach and intestines. A tract is a collection of related anatomic structures or a series of connected body organs. All vertebrates and most invertebrates have a digestive tract. The sponges , cnidarians , and ctenophores are the early invertebrates with an incomplete digestive tract having just one opening instead of two, where food is taken in and waste expelled.

Food that is chewed in the oral cavity then swallowed ends up in the stomach where it is further digested so its nutrients can be absorbed in the small intestine. The salivary glands, liver and gall bladder, and the pancreas aid the processes of ingestion, digestion, and absorption. These accessory organs of digestion play key roles in the digestive process. Each of these organs either secretes or stores substances that pass through ducts into the alimentary canal. Six salivary glands, located around the oral cavity, secrete saliva. This substance moves out of the glands into the oral cavity through ducts. The liver is one of the largest organs in the body and it is continuously producing bile.

The human digestive system, also known as the digestive tract, the GI tract, the alimentary canal is a series of connected organs leading from the mouth to the anus. The digestive system allows us to break down the food we eat to obtain energy and nourishment. The digestive system -- which can be up to 30 feet in length in adults -- is usually divided into eight parts: the mouth, the esophagus, the stomach, the small intestine or "small bowel" and the large intestine also called "large bowel" or "colon" with the liver, pancreas, and gallbladder adding secretions to help digestion. These organs combine to perform six tasks: ingestion, secretion, propulsion, digestion, absorption, and defecation. The mouth starts the process by ingesting and mechanically breaking down the food we eat into a swallowable form, adding some early secretions to start the process of digestion. The esophagus is the muscular tube connecting the mouth to the stomach. A ring-like muscle at the end of the esophagus controls the passage of food into the stomach.

23.2 Digestive System Processes and Regulation

The digestive system is a kind of processing plant inside the body. It takes in food and pushes it through organs and structures where the processing happens. The fuels and nutrients we need are extracted, and the digestive system discards the rest. The digestive system includes structures that form the alimentary canal and the accessory organs of digestion. Digestion breaks down large compounds in food and liquids into smaller molecules that can be absorbed into the bloodstream. The absorbed nutrients include carbohydrates, protein, fats, minerals, and vitamins. They are processed, then delivered throughout the body and used for energy, growth, and cell repair.

Anatomy & Physiology of Digestion: 10 Facts That Explain How the Body Absorbs Nutrients

The function of the digestive system is digestion and absorption. Digestion is the breakdown of food into small molecules, which are then absorbed into the body. The digestive system is divided into two major parts:.

To survive, we need to take nutrients from the food that we eat. This is achieved by digestion, a complicated process that takes place in our gut. Although food contains all of the nutrients we need for good health, they are locked up in large, complex compounds.

The function of the digestive system is to break down the foods you eat, release their nutrients, and absorb those nutrients into the body. Although the small intestine is the workhorse of the system, where the majority of digestion occurs, and where most of the released nutrients are absorbed into the blood or lymph, each of the digestive system organs makes a vital contribution to this process. Figure 1.

1. Saliva Moistens Food and Begins the Chemical Digestion Process

 Да, сэр, - сказала Мидж. - Потому что Стратмор обошел систему Сквозь строй? - Фонтейн опустил глаза на компьютерную распечатку. - Да, - сказала.  - Кроме того, ТРАНСТЕКСТ уже больше двадцати часов не может справиться с каким-то файлом. Фонтейн наморщил лоб. - Это по вашим данным. Мидж хотела возразить, но прикусила язык.

Сирена продолжала завывать. - Но я же ни в чем не виноват. - Ты лжешь. У меня есть доказательство! - Сьюзан встала и подошла к терминалам.  - Помнишь, как ты отключил Следопыта? - спросила она, подойдя к своему терминалу.

Черный лед. В центре помещения из пола торчала, подобно носу исполинской торпеды, верхняя часть машины, ради которой было возведено все здание. Ее черный лоснящийся верх поднимался на двадцать три фута, а сама она уходила далеко вниз, под пол. Своей гладкой окружной формой она напоминала дельфина-косатку, застывшего от холода в схваченном морозом море. Это был ТРАНСТЕКСТ, компьютер, равного которому не было в мире, - шифровальная машина, засекреченная агентством. Подобно айсбергу машина скрывала девяносто процентов своей массы и мощи под поверхностью.

Accessory Organs: Glands and Organs That Facilitate the Process of Digestion

Провода от принтера лежали. Должно быть, я оставила беретту на диване, - подумала. Кровь, вытекающая из головы, в голубоватом свечении казалась черной.

1 Comments

IbГ©rico C.
16.05.2021 at 03:41 - Reply

Human Anatomy & Physiology: Digestive System; Ziser Lecture Notes, 1. The Digestive System. We need food for cellular utilization: →nutrients as.

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