Conservation And Management Of Biodiversity PdfBy Mayhew G. In and pdf 16.05.2021 at 04:55 5 min read
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Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. Ramesh Published Geography Tropical Ecology. First, biodiversity-related issues are set in the global context, while India's own biological profile is highlighted.
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Environmental degradation also affects the ecosystems' functioning both in the natural and built-up environment Brandon et al. The loss of biological diversity may take many forms but at its most fundamental and irreversible it involves the extinction of species. A species goes extinct if all its populations in the world disappear.
Species with small geographical ranges are particularly vulnerable. As a result, many species will disappear before they have been described by science IUCN, Therefore, when we deal with biodiversity, it is very essential to define what conservation is with respect to biological diversity. It is the management of human use of the biosphere so that it may yield the greatest sustainable benefit to present generations while maintaining its potential to meet the needs and aspirations of future generations.
This was the first modern attempt to recognize that conservation of renewable resources, including biological diversity, involves wise dynamic use and not just static preservation or protection but paves the way for the sustainable utilization of biological resources WWF, Causes for the losses of biodiversitySpecies may be exterminated by man through a series of effects and agencies which may be largely attributed to two broad categories Slingenberg et al.
These effects include i direct effects hunting, collection and persecution and ii indirect effects habitat destruction and modification. Over hunting is the most obvious direct cause of extinction in animals but far less important in terms of overall loss of biodiversity than habitat modification and loss. Land use change is widely agreed to be the strongest catalyst for changes.
Furthermore, nearly half of areas currently protected for biodiversity are themselves heavily used for agriculture, and many of them are located in regions where agriculture is major land use. The following are the main causes for the loss of biological diversity: i Habitat destruction: the primary cause for the loss of biodiversity is not direct human exploitation but the habitat destruction that inevitably results from the expansion of human populations and human activities Kideghesho, ;Brawn et al.
When habitat is destroyed there is often a patchwork of habitat fragments left behind. These fragments are often isolated from one another by a highly modified or degraded landscape. Habitat fragments differ from the original habitat in two ways: One, fragments have a greater amount of edge for the area of habitat, and second, the center of each habitat fragment is closer to an edge.
Habitat fragmentation may limit the potential of species for dispersal and colonization. It also reduces the foraging ability of animals. Habitat fragmentation causes such edge effects as microclimatic changes in light, temperature, wind, etc.
For example, physical degradation of forest habitat by uncontrolled ground fires might not kill the trees, but the rich perennial wild plant community and insect fauna on the forest floor would be greatly affected Hurbert and Haskell, The great majority of the exotic species do not become established in the introduced new places. However, some of the species are able to establish in other new area. Such successful exotic species may kill or eat native species to the point of extinction, or may so later the habitat that many native species are no longer able to persist Stohlgren et al.
Impacts of the loss of biological diversityLoss of biodiversity affects both the stability and function of ecosystem Ruijven and Berendse, Ecosystem stability can be thought of as having two components.
These are i resistance which is the 'shock-absorbing' capacity of an ecosystem-its ability to stay as it is in the face of some environmental changes and ii resilience is the ability of an ecosystem to 'bounce back' after it has been severely disturbed.
Loss of biodiversity loss of species is assumed to affect both of these things. The conservation of biological resources depends on the continuous health and productivity of local ecosystems hence both biological diversity and biological resources need to be conserved. The Need for Conserving BiodiversityPreserving biodiversity means preserving the ecosystem services, and directly provides things of pragmatic value to us Alcamo and Elena, ;Randolph, Hence, the following goals are some of the reason why we need to conserve the biological resources: i the present and potential use of elements of biodiversity as biological resources, ii the maintenance of the biosphere in a state supportive of human life, and iii the maintenance of biological diversity per second, in particular of all presently living species.
Therefore, it is evident that a certain level of biological diversity is necessary to provide the material basis of human life: at one level to maintain the biosphere as a functioning system and, at another, to provide the basic materials for agriculture and other utilitarian needs. Hence, there are four basic justifications for the conservation of biodiversity which include: i The utilitarian justification: biological diversity benefits humanity in various ways.
We depend on animal, plant, fungal, and microbial species for food, fuel, fiber, medicines and raw materials for many manufacturing technologies. The productivity of agricultural systems depends on interactions of diverse organisms with in agro ecosystems.
Consequently, in their role as global stewards, people have an obligation to assist the continued existence of species, that is, to conserve biological diversity.
Aesthetic interest, of course leads to tourism, film making, and other activities from which an economic return can be obtained. Aesthetic appreciation of nature is physiologically deeply rooted in people. Moreover, we can consider the role of forests in watershed regulation and stabilization of soils in erosion-prone areas.
Biodiversity Conservation Approaches In situ conservationThe maintenance of viable populations of species in their natural habitat is identified as a fundamental requirement for the conservation of biological diversity by the Convention on Biological Diversity CBD.
One option used to conserve the biodiversity is through the technology of in-situ conservation which means the conservation of ecosystems and natural habitats and the maintenance and recovery of viable populations of species in their natural surroundings and, in the case of domesticates or cultivated species, in the surroundings where they have developed their distinctive properties UNEP, ;Heywood, In-situ conservation primarily focuses on the conservation of natural habitats, notably protected areas and other kinds of reserves, and the conservation, maintenance or recovery of viable population of species in their natural habitats.
The in-situ techniques include: i Genetic reserve conservation: the location, management and monitoring of genetic diversity in natural wild populations within defined areas designated for active, long-term conservation. Advantages and risks of in-situ conservationIn-situ maintenance of biodiversity through the establishment of conservation and multiple-use areas offers distinct advantages over off-site methods in terms of coverage, viability of the resource, and the economic sustainability of the methods.
When the need develops and this diversity is thoroughly examined, commercially valuable genetic and biochemical materials may be found Eisner, However, it is not sufficient to establish a conservation area and then assume its biodiversity is automatically protected and without risk. Many risks, both natural and anthropogenic, remain in place as Shaffer cited four broad categories of natural risks. These risks include: i demographic uncertainty, resulting from random events in the survival and reproduction of individuals, ii environmental uncertainty which is due to random, or at least unpredictable, changes in weather, food supply, and the populations of competitors, predators, parasites, etc.
The greatest uncertainties, however, are often human created. Habitat destruction for human settlement and associated development interventions is the most important factor contributing to the diminishing mosaic of biodiversity.
These uncertainties can only be met with a full array of conservation programs, including those that use exsitu methods. Ex situ conservationEx-situ conservation means the conservation of species outside their natural range such as in zoos, botanic gardens, aquaria and seed banks. It is a last resort, which is used only after it is evident that it is impossible to preserve the ecosystems or habitat UNEP, ; Theilade and Petri, ;Michael et al.
The Convention on Biological Diversity specifically recommends that ex-situ measures be adopted as necessary in situations where in-situ conservation program do not prove to be adequate. These measures have most extensively been applied to conserve cultivated and domesticated agro biodiversity, employing techniques such as botanical gardens, zoos, seed banks, field gene banks, in-vitro storage, and captive breeding measures UNEP, Gene BanksPlant genetic resources gene banks store, maintain and reproduce living samples of the world's huge diversity of crop varieties and their wild relatives.
They ensure that the varieties and landraces of the crops and their wild relatives that underpin our food supply are both secure in the long term and available for use by farmers, plant breeders and researchers.
Community seed banksIn many developing countries, farmers rely on informal seed systems based on local growers retention of seed from previous harvests, storage, treatment and exchange of this seed within and between communities. The informal seed sector is typically based on indigenous structures for information flow and exchange of seed. Seed banks managed within this local seed system operate on a small scale at the community level with few resources.
Botanical gardens and ZoosBotanical gardens and zoos are the most conventional methods of ex-situ conservation, all of which house whole, protected specimens for breeding and reintroduction into the wild when necessary and possible.
These facilities provide not only housing and care for specimens of endangered species, but also have an educational value. Field Gene banksField gene banks or living collections are the main conservation strategy for long-lived perennials, recalcitrant species and vegetative propagated species. Their main limitation is that they take a great deal of space and are difficult to maintain and protect from natural disasters. They are susceptible to the spread of diseases and may suffer from neglect.
In-vitro ConservationIn-vitro conservation of plant genetic resource is becoming a complementary approach to the conventional conservation methods. It is used to save plant material for short, medium and long-term time in a small place and in a controlled condition. It is cost effective and can be simply transferred from one country to other country and it is used to as a tool to implement the Convention of Biological Diversity through the equitable share of the products of genetic resources Shabil et al.
Conservation in-vitro is wholly dependent upon the techniques of plant cell, tissue and organ culture, and is appropriate in situations where conventional seed storage cannot or is not to be employed. The material stored in-vitro may be protoplast, isolated cells grown in suspension or on semi-solid medium, meristem cultures at various stages of development or organized plantlet.
It can be assumed that genetic stability within the in-vitro systems increase as the complexity of the cultured material, with completely differentiated plantlets in culture having the least risk of genetic alteration during an in-vitro excursion Engelmann, ;Sarwar and Siddiqui, In-vitro conservation is the most useful and efficient way to distribute clonal materials.
It facilitates the availability of planting materials at any time; avoid the transfer of major pests and pathogens and makes virus eradication through meristem culture Georg, Captive breedingHabitat protection alone is not sufficient if the expressed goal of the World Conservation Strategy, the maintenance of biotic diversity, is to be achieved. Establishment of self-sustaining captive populations and other supportive intervention will be needed to avoid the loss of many species, especially those at high risk in greatly reduced, highly fragmented, and disturbed habitats.
Captive breeding programs need to be established before species are reduced to critically low numbers, and thereafter need to be coordinated internationally according to sound biological principles, with a view to the maintaining or re-establishment of viable populations in the wild Huntley and Langton, Many endangered species are being bred in zoos, to boost populations and reintroduce them into the wild. This introduction should be compatible with the wild ecosystem and should not be with potential harm with the wild flora and fauna.
Otherwise, this is worthless if there is not adequate habitat left in the wild Miller et al. In general, captive breeding approach becomes necessary Michael et al. Having all the above advantages, undertaking, captive breeding can also cause several problems Thomson, : i potential for disease transmission from captive animals to both humans and wild species; ii potential for loss of genetic integrity amongst populations of wild species should they breed with escaped captive animals, which are often non-indigenous or hybridized; iii questionable caring treatment of the animals in captivity; and iv Reduced incentive to conserve wild populations and their habitats.
Ex-situ conservation approach has also its own risk unless the re-introductions are performed in such a way that other indigenous species are not harmed or adversely affected. The regulation and management of such transactions requires accurate information to determine the impact of collection on populations and ecosystems.
Complementary conservationA complementary conservation strategy can be defined as the combination of different conservation actions e. It is an approach which involves striking the right balance between different methods employed. It depends on the species being conserved, the local infrastructure and human resources, the number of accessions in a given collection, its geographic site and intended use of the conserved germplasm.
This approach offers a criterion for choice, and is basic to general procedures for priority setting in relation to explicit goals Watson and Eyzaguirre, Circa situ conservationThe term circa-situ conservation is the conservation of components of biological diversity outside their natural habitats but within managed within traditional systems by local farmers. It has been used for a range of practices commonly associated especially with more traditional and biodiversity-rich agricultural systems Hawkes et al.
Biodiversity Conservation & Management
Founded in , Biodiversity and Conservation is an international journal that publishes articles on all aspects of biological diversity, its conservation, and sustainable use. It is multidisciplinary and covers living organisms of all kinds in any habitat, focusing on studies using novel or little-used approaches, and ones from less studied biodiversity rich regions or habitats. It also features rapid assessment approaches, the estimation of species numbers and diversity by traditional, molecular, or proxy indicator methods , habitat management, conservation policy and regulations, threats, biodiversity loss, extinctions, and the documenting of long-term changes, and ex-situ conservation. It includes reviews, research papers, editorials, commentaries, and letters, and sometimes whole issues devote to particular topics. Issue 3, March We welcome applications from academics with some editorial experience to join our international Editorial Board Associate Editors of the journal in order to increase our coverage of different groups of organisms and regions. Authors of papers dealing with or planning to deal with aspects of conservation interventions are requested to consult the Conservation Evidence website prior to submission to facilitate placing their work in the context of previous intervention studies.
plans for sustainable conservation and management of biodiversity through an integrative ap- proach by taking into account ecological, social, economic and.
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Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer. Current Issue Vol 6 No 1 Published: Articles Impact of crop diversification on livelihood improvement and sustainable land management in Chattogram Hill Tracts of Bangladesh.
As human influences fragment native communities and ecosystems, remaining land must be better managed to conserve many elements of biodiversity. Much of this land is privately held, yet traditional private land-use management practices often further diminish biodiversity by promoting favored or edge-adapted species.
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Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Abramovitz, J. Investing in Biological Diversity: U. Research and Conservation Efforts in Developing Countries. Washington, D. Alcorn, J.
Biodiversity conservation, the practice of protecting and preserving the wealth and variety of species, habitats, ecosystems, and genetic diversity on the planet, is important for our health, wealth, food, fuel, and services we depend on. It plays an integral role in supporting many sectors of development. Recognizing that improving livelihoods, security, and human health depends on the conservation of biodiversity in healthy ecosystems, USAID leads the U. MACH works with communities to responsibly manage wetlands through improved conservation measures and sustainable fishing practices. As a result, threatened fish populations have bounced back, migratory birds have returned and aquatic plants have recovered.
John's A1C 5S7, Canada. Like everyone else, conservation biologists are concerned first with how the pandemic will affect their families, friends, and people around the world. But we also have a duty to think about how it will impact the world's biodiversity and our ability to protect it, as well as how it might affect the training and careers of conservation researchers and practitioners.