Agriculture And Rural Development In India Since 1947 Pdf

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In , agriculture and allied sectors like animal husbandry , forestry and fisheries accounted for Still, agriculture is demographically the broadest economic sector and plays a significant role in the overall socio-economic fabric of India.

The same trend is observed for pulses, where it is the second highest producer. State of Agriculture of India. Agricultural productivity depends on several factors.

Rural Development before and after Independence in India (3445 Words)

In , agriculture and allied sectors like animal husbandry , forestry and fisheries accounted for Still, agriculture is demographically the broadest economic sector and plays a significant role in the overall socio-economic fabric of India.

As per the FAO world agriculture statistics India is the world's largest producer of many fresh fruits like banana, mango, guava, papaya, lemon and vegetables like chickpea, okra and milk , major spices like chili pepper, ginger, fibrous crops such as jute , staples such as millets and castor oil seed.

India is the second largest producer of wheat and rice , the world's major food staples. India is currently the world's second largest producer of several dry fruits , agriculture-based textile raw materials, roots and tuber crops, pulses , farmed fish , eggs , coconut , sugarcane and numerous vegetables.

One report from claimed that India's population is growing faster than its ability to produce rice and wheat. In fiscal year ending June , with a normal monsoon season, Indian agriculture accomplished an all-time record production of Rice output in India hit a new record at Indian farmers, thus produced about 71 kilograms of wheat and 80 kilograms of rice for every member of Indian population in The per capita supply of rice every year in India is now higher than the per capita consumption of rice every year in Japan.

India exported around 2 million metric tonnes of wheat and 2. Aquaculture and catch fishery is amongst the fastest growing industries in India. Between and , the Indian fish capture harvest doubled, while aquaculture harvest tripled. In , India was the world's sixth largest producer of marine and freshwater capture fisheries and the second largest aquaculture farmed fish producer.

India exported , metric tonnes of fish products to nearly half of the world's countries. India has shown a steady average nationwide annual increase in the kilograms produced per hectare for some agricultural items, over the last 60 years.

These gains have come mainly from India's green revolution , improving road and power generation infrastructure, knowledge of gains and reforms. Vedic literature provides some of the earliest written record of agriculture in India. Rigveda hymns, for example, describes plowing, fallowing, irrigation, fruit and vegetable cultivation.

Other historical evidence suggests rice and cotton were cultivated in the Indus Valley , and plowing patterns from the Bronze Age have been excavated at Kalibangan in Rajasthan. Some archaeologists believe that rice was a domesticated crop along the banks of the river Ganges in the sixth millennium BC. Indians might have domesticated buffalo the river type years ago. According to some scientists agriculture was widespread in the Indian peninsula, — years ago, well beyond the fertile plains of the north.

Some claim Indian agriculture began by BC as a result of early cultivation of plants, and domestication of crops and animals. The middle ages saw irrigation channels reach a new level of sophistication, and Indian crops affected the economies of other regions of the world under Islamic patronage.

Despite some stagnation during the later modern era the independent Republic of India was able to develop a comprehensive agricultural programme. Over years ago, Indian farmers had discovered and begun farming many spices and sugarcane. It was in India, between the sixth and four BC, that the Persians , followed by the Greeks , discovered the famous "reeds that produce honey without bees" being grown. On their return journey, the Macedonian soldiers carried the "honey bearing reeds," thus spreading sugar and sugarcane agriculture.

Before the 18th century, cultivation of sugarcane was largely confined to India. A few merchants began to trade in sugar — a luxury and an expensive spice in Europe until the 18th century. Sugar became widely popular in 18th-century Europe, then graduated to become a human necessity in the 19th century all over the world. This evolution of taste and demand for sugar as an essential food ingredient unleashed major economic and social changes.

Sugarcane does not grow in cold, frost-prone climate; therefore, tropical and semitropical colonies were sought. Sugarcane plantations, just like cotton farms, became a major driver of large and forced human migrations in the 19th century and early 20th century — of people from Africa and from India, both in millions — influencing the ethnic mix, political conflicts and cultural evolution of Caribbean, South American, Indian Ocean and Pacific Island nations.

The history and past accomplishments of Indian agriculture thus influenced, in part, colonialism, slavery and slavery-like indentured labour practices in the new world, Caribbean wars and world history in 18th and 19th centuries.

In the years since its independence, India has made immense progress towards food security. Indian population has tripled, and food-grain production more than quadrupled. There has been a substantial increase in available food-grain per capita. Before the mids, India relied on imports and food aid to meet domestic requirements. However, two years of severe drought in and convinced India to reform its agricultural policy and that it could not rely on foreign aid and imports for food security.

India adopted significant policy reforms focused on the goal of food grain self-sufficiency. This ushered in India's Green Revolution. It began with the decision to adopt superior yielding, disease resistant wheat varieties in combination with better farming knowledge to improve productivity.

The state of Punjab led India's green revolution and earned the distinction of being the country's breadbasket. The initial increase in production was centred on the irrigated areas of the states of Punjab , Haryana and western Uttar Pradesh. With the farmers and the government officials focusing on farm productivity and knowledge transfer, India's total food grain production soared. A hectare of Indian wheat farm that produced an average of 0. Such rapid growth in farm productivity enabled India to become self-sufficient by the s.

It also empowered the smallholder farmers to seek further means to increase food staples produced per hectare. By , Indian farms were adopting wheat varieties capable of yielding 6 tonnes of wheat per hectare.

With agricultural policy success in wheat, India's Green Revolution technology spread to rice. However, since irrigation infrastructure was very poor, Indian farmers innovated with tube-wells, to harvest ground water. When gains from the new technology reached their limits in the states of initial adoption, the technology spread in the s and s to the states of eastern India — Bihar , Odisha and West Bengal. The lasting benefits of the improved seeds and new technology extended principally to the irrigated areas which account for about one-third of the harvested crop area.

In the s, Indian agriculture policy shifted to "evolution of a production pattern in line with the demand pattern" leading to a shift in emphasis to other agricultural commodities like oilseed, fruit and vegetables. Farmers began adopting improved methods and technologies in dairying, fisheries and livestock, and meeting the diversified food needs of a growing population.

As with rice, the lasting benefits of improved seeds and improved farming technologies now largely depends on whether India develops infrastructure such as irrigation network, flood control systems, reliable electricity production capacity, all-season rural and urban highways, cold storage to prevent spoilage, modern retail, and competitive buyers of produce from Indian farmers.

This is increasingly the focus of Indian agriculture policy. India ranks 74 out of major countries in terms of food security index. This isn't because of reduced importance of agriculture or a consequence of agricultural policy; rather, it is largely due to the rapid economic growth in services, industrial output, and non-agricultural sectors in India between and Agricultural scientist MS Swaminathan has played a vital role in the green revolution.

In , NDTV named him one of 25 living legends of India for outstanding contributions to agriculture and making India a food-sovereign country. Two states, Sikkim [55] [56] [57] [58] and Kerala [59] [60] have planned to shift fully to organic farming by and respectively. The cultivators have, however, to give a minimum guarantee of Rs per annum. The question of extending this scheme to the entire State is under consideration. In South Bihar and Chhota- Nagpur, there is no difference between the two rates.

No decision has been taken so far by the State Government to subsidise the power supply for agricultural purposes [64].

The question of reducing the rates does not, therefore, arise. Indian irrigation infrastructure includes a network of major and minor canals from rivers, groundwater well-based systems, tanks, and other rainwater harvesting projects for agricultural activities.

Of these, the groundwater system is the largest. Dams used for irrigation projects have helped provide drinking water to a growing rural population, control flood and prevent drought-related damage to agriculture.

India's arable land area of Its gross irrigated crop area of India is among the top three global producers of many crops, including wheat, rice, pulses, cotton, peanuts, fruits and vegetables. Worldwide, as of [update] , India had the largest herds of buffalo and cattle, is the largest producer of milk and has one of the largest and fastest growing poultry industries.

The following table presents the 20 most important agricultural products in India, by economic value, in Included in the table is the average productivity of India's farms for each produce. For context and comparison, included is the average of the most productive farms in the world and name of country where the most productive farms existed in The table suggests India has large potential for further accomplishments from productivity increases, in increased agricultural output and agricultural incomes.

The Statistics Office of the Food and Agriculture Organization reported that, per final numbers for , India had grown to become the world's largest producer of the following agricultural products: [82] [83]. Per final numbers for , India is the world's second largest producer of the following agricultural products: [82]. In , India was the world's third largest producer of eggs, oranges, coconuts, tomatoes, peas and beans.

In addition to growth in total output, agriculture in India has shown an increase in average agricultural output per hectare in last 60 years. The table below presents average farm productivity in India over three farming years for some crops. Additionally, despite these gains in farm productivity, losses after harvest due to poor infrastructure and unorganised retail cause India to experience some of the highest food losses in the world.

India and China are competing to establish the world record on rice yields. Yuan Longping of China National Hybrid Rice Research and Development Centre set a world record for rice yield in at 19 tonnes per hectare in a demonstration plot.

In , this record was surpassed by an Indian farmer, Sumant Kumar, with These farmers claim to have employed newly developed rice breeds and system of rice intensification SRI , a recent innovation in farming. The claimed Chinese and Indian yields have yet to be demonstrated on 7 hectare farm lots and that these are reproducible over two consecutive years on the same farm.

The total production and economic value of horticultural produce, such as fruits, vegetables and nuts has doubled in India over the year period from to In , the production from horticulture exceeded grain output for the first time. The total horticulture produce reached Organic agriculture has fed India for centuries and it is again a growing sector in India.

Organic production offers clean and green production methods without the use of synthetic fertilisers and pesticides and it achieves a premium price in the market place. India has 6,50, organic producers, which is more that any other country. India has seen a huge growth in cooperative societies , mainly in the farming sector, since when the country gained independence from Britain. The country has networks of cooperatives at the local, regional, state and national levels that assist in agricultural marketing.

Education About Asia: Online Archives

The task that the democratically elected leaders of newly independent India embarked on in the early s was not for the faint of heart. The literacy rate stood at 14 percent, and the average life expectancy was thirty-two years. How successful has the country been in fulfilling the task over sixty years later? The country has experienced an increase in per capita income—especially since the s—as well as reductions in poverty and infant mortality rates. These improvements are not insignificant and mark a sharp break from the near stagnation that the country experienced during British rule. How did that come about?

In India, the idea of decentralized planning gained momentum after the country became independent in but its rudimentary practice was not completely unknown before In post-independent India a number of government committees and commissions had recommended for introduction of decentralized planning at different points of time. The most remarkable event in this regard were twin Constitutional amendments which clarified the role of local bodies and institutionalized participation of the people which signaled what is often called a paradigmatic change. The amendments gave decentralized planning constitutional sanction and sanctity, and provided a model of planning for the whole country. In this paper, an attempt has been made to capture the different phases in the evolution of the decentralized planning processes in India as a backdrop and to assess and analyze the experiences of introduction of decentralized planning in one state of the Union of Indian states called West Bengal. It is one of the states where the exercise was done through active participation of people sought to be achieved through institutional structures created in the villages.

State of Agriculture in India

Rural development before independence can be analysed under two broad heads: i development efforts made by British Government, and ii efforts made by voluntary organisations. Image Courtesy : upload. The traditional barter system received a severe set-back during the British period. Introduction of cash economy by the Britishers enabled the peasants to adopt commercial crops.

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Agriculture in India

Even when nearly three-fourths of its working population worked on its vast farmlands, served by an extensive spread of rivers and a wide range of climatic conditions, India could not produce enough food for its population. To read the full text Login. New 3 Month Subscription to Digital Archives at. EPW looks forward to your comments. Please note that comments are moderated as per our comments policy.

 Каким временем мы располагаем. Стратмор нахмурился: - Танкадо намерен назвать победителя аукциона завтра в полдень. Сьюзан почувствовала, что у нее сводит желудок. - А что. - Он говорит, что вручит победителю ключ.

State of Agriculture in India

Наконец-то. ГЛАВА 77 Стратмор остановился на площадке у своего кабинета, держа перед собой пистолет. Сьюзан шла следом за ним, размышляя, по-прежнему ли Хейл прячется в Третьем узле. Свет от монитора Стратмора отбрасывал на них жутковатую тень.

Сьюзан пришлось сделать крюк, притворившись, что она направляется в туалет. Нельзя, чтобы Хейл что-то заподозрил. ГЛАВА 43 В свои сорок пять Чед Бринкерхофф отличался тем, что носил тщательно отутюженные костюмы, был всегда аккуратно причесан и прекрасно информирован.

Кардинальное отличие Монокля заключалось не в его миниатюрном дисплее, а в системе ввода информации. Пользователь вводил информацию с помощью крошечных контактов, закрепленных на пальцах. Контакты соединялись в определенной последовательности, которую компьютер затем расшифровывал и переводил на нормальный английский.

Я требую направить сюда всю энергию из внешних источников. Все системы должны заработать через пять минут. Грег Хейл убил одного из младших сотрудников лаборатории систем безопасности и взял в заложники моего старшего криптографа.

 Хоть что-нибудь, - настаивал Беккер.  - Может, вы знаете имя этой женщины. Клушар некоторое время молчал, потом потер правый висок. Он был очень бледен. - Н-нет… Не думаю… - Голос его дрожал.

Слова Стратмора эхом отдавались в его голове: Уходите немедленно. Это приказ. Чатрукьян пнул ногой урну и выругался вслух - благо лаборатория была пуста: - Диагностика, черт ее дери. С каких это пор заместитель директора начал действовать в обход фильтров. Сотрудникам лаборатории платили хорошие деньги, чтобы они охраняли компьютерные системы АНБ, и Чатрукьян давно понял, что от него требуются две вещи: высочайший профессионализм и подозрительность, граничащая с паранойей.

В тусклом свете мониторов Сьюзан увидела, что это, и побледнела. Он достал пистолет. Он выдвинул два стула на середину комнаты. Сел. Поднял посверкивающую полуавтоматическую беретту и нацелил ее на дверь, а потом опустил себе на колени.

Не успел он приняться за чтение отчета службы безопасности, как его мысли были прерваны шумом голосов из соседней комнаты.


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