Endocannabinoid Signaling And Long Term Synaptic Plasticity PdfBy John S. In and pdf 18.05.2021 at 08:43 8 min read
File Name: endocannabinoid signaling and long term synaptic plasticity .zip
- Mechanisms of long-term plasticity of hippocampal GABAergic synapses
- Introductory Chapter: Mechanisms and Function of Synaptic Plasticity
- Dual Influence of Endocannabinoids on Long-Term Potentiation of Synaptic Transmission
In neurophysiology , long-term depression LTD is an activity-dependent reduction in the efficacy of neuronal synapses lasting hours or longer following a long patterned stimulus. LTD occurs in many areas of the CNS with varying mechanisms depending upon brain region and developmental progress. As the opposing process to long-term potentiation LTP , LTD is one of several processes that serves to selectively weaken specific synapses in order to make constructive use of synaptic strengthening caused by LTP. This is necessary because, if allowed to continue increasing in strength, synapses would ultimately reach a ceiling level of efficiency, which would inhibit the encoding of new information.
Mechanisms of long-term plasticity of hippocampal GABAergic synapses
Reviewed: February 15th Published: June 21st Synaptic Plasticity. Many everyday experiences such as reading a book like this one, classroom learning, drug taking, or stressful situations can result in changes of our brain at different levels. These changes can manifest themselves in altering both the structure and function of neural circuits. Neural circuits are built by neurons, which form points of contacts with each other, the synapses [ 1 ]. A given neuron can form thousands of synapses on its dendrites, cell body and axon, and through synaptic transmission, communicates information with other neurons in the nervous system.
Ade, M. Janssen, P. Ortinski, and S. Alger and J. Kim , Supply and demand for endocannabinoids , Trends Neurosci , vol.
Introductory Chapter: Mechanisms and Function of Synaptic Plasticity
Cannabinoid receptor 1 CB 1 R is widely distributed in the central nervous system, in excitatory and inhibitory neurons, and in astrocytes. CB 1 R agonists impair cognition and prevent long-term potentiation LTP of synaptic transmission, but the influence of endogenously formed cannabinoids eCBs on hippocampal LTP remains ambiguous. Based on the knowledge that eCBs are released upon high frequency neuronal firing, we hypothesized that the influence of eCBs upon LTP could change according to the paradigm of LTP induction. Accordingly, an inhibitor of the metabolism of the predominant eCB in the hippocampus, 2-arachidonoyl-glycerol 2-AG , facilitates strong LTP. The facilitatory action of endogenous CB 1 R activation does not require the activity of inhibitory A1 adenosine receptors, is not affected by inhibition of astrocytic metabolism, but involves inhibitory GABAergic transmission.
PDF | Endocannabinoids (eCBs) are key activity-dependent signals regulating synaptic transmission throughout the central nervous system.
Dual Influence of Endocannabinoids on Long-Term Potentiation of Synaptic Transmission
The endocannabinoid system has been involved in the regulation of anxiety, and proposed as an inhibitory modulator of neuronal, behavioral and adrenocortical responses to stressful stimuli. Brain regions such as the amygdala, hippocampus and cortex, which are directly involved in the regulation of emotional behavior, contain high densities of cannabinoid CB1 receptors. Mutant mice lacking CB1 receptors show anxiogenic and depressive-like behaviors as well as an altered hypothalamus pituitary adrenal axis activity, whereas enhancement of endocannabinoid signaling produces anxiolytic and antidepressant-like effects. Genetic and pharmacological approaches also support an involvement of endocannabinoids in extinction of aversive memories. Thus, the endocannabinoid system appears to play a pivotal role in the regulation of emotional states.
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Hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons receive two excitatory glutamatergic synaptic inputs: their most distal dendritic regions in the stratum lacunosum-moleculare SLM are innervated by the perforant path PP , originating from layer III of the entorhinal cortex, while their more proximal regions of the apical dendrites in the stratum radiatum SR are innervated by the Schaffer-collaterals SC , originating from hippocampal CA3 neurons.