Concept Of Individual Differences In Teaching And Learning Pdf


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Citation: Huitt, W. Individual differences. Educational Psychology Interactive.

Individual differences in learning and memory abilities have fascinated people since they began thinking about how their minds work.

Individual Differences: Types, Causes and Role | Psychology

To browse Academia. Skip to main content. By using our site, you agree to our collection of information through the use of cookies. To learn more, view our Privacy Policy. Log In Sign Up. Download Free PDF. How would a teacher, among individual differences and from a learner centered approach, teach in a large classroom. Mounir Mido. Download PDF. A short summary of this paper. How would a teacher, among individual differences and from a learner centered approach, teach in a large classroom?

By: Mounir Midoul Introduction: In a classroom there are different types of learners. These need a specific attention and solution in order to make them equal and happy in learning, and improve their competence as well. A widely known approach used to deal with the needs and interests of students is learner-centered approach.

It places the learner in the center of the learning process. In this approach, students are active participant in their learning; they learn at their own pace, and use their own strategies; they are more intrinsically than extrinsically motivated.

But the problem that poses itself is that in the large number of students teachers have in the classroom with plenty of individual differences and learning styles. Thus, understanding learner differences in classrooms and finding ways to appropriately and efficiently deal with each student is a must for teachers to meet their needs.

In this article, I will consider the issue how teachers in classes with mixed abilities and individual differences would teach. Should they adjust their teaching to the different types of learners they have, or should they help them learn all. The organization of this paper is as follows: In the first section I will consider individual differences in language learning.

In the second section, I will discuss learner centered- approach to learning and its implication for English teaching. Finally, in the third section, I will present some ways to appropriately and effectively teach the different kinds of learners in language classrooms.

Individual differences in language learning: There are lots of factors which affect language learning both positively and negatively. In this chapter, I will focus on the personality characteristics, motivation, aptitude, learning style and the age which I consider as the main factors which influence the learning process.

Learning Styles: The performance that the learners show up during their academic life changes according to their needs. The students learn better not only in different styles but also in different circumstances. This kind of learners has a musical intelligence.

The activities run by music, songs and chants work well for the auditory students who could be better engaged to the lesson by listening. They can grasp the lyrics of the songs easily. They tend to understand the language system in the listening activities. Students express themselves through movements, gestures and touch. Objects, actions and feelings are important. Kinesthetic students get highly motivated acting out the theme.

These students generally prefer the positions that they can see the teaching aids clearly. Visuals like photos, pictures, maps, diagrams most appeal to the visual learners. Teachers attract their attention easily using visuals while presenting a language, introducing topics or playing games. They are often unwilling to share their ideas with their teachers and friends and to participate in activities.

Thus, they need to be encouraged to speak or join the activities by the teacher. Lucas, Michael O'Hora, , P. They feel better if we ask them to perform within small groups rather than in front of the whole class. Pair-work activities, in this sense, appeal them very much. Moreover, the activities in which we ask the students to talk about facts such as pictures and places or neutral things appeal to them much more instead of the activities which requires them to expose what they feel, think or like.

On the contrary, extrovert students are very comfortable while speaking and sharing their experiences with their friends and teachers. They even help their introvert partners with the tasks. They are willing to speak in the target language and they are not afraid of making mistakes. They enjoy learning through role plays, dramas, act outs; any activities which communication takes part in.

This type of students should be allowed to show their abilities and given enough opportunity to express themselves. Motivation: Motivation has also an important role on how and the students learn.

There are lots of factors affecting motivation; like age, gender, goal and attitude, which are internal; and also positive and negative feedback by the teacher, expectations, rewards and confidence, which are external. Group works and competitions stimulate the young learners to do well. The students who feel inferior as they have failed to accomplish a task lose their motivation. It might be too difficult to meet the needs of all the learning styles, all different personalities, cultures or abilities.

The more the learners develop positive attitudes to learning the more successful is the learning process.

Learner-centered approach In the previous section, I discussed some individual differences which influence the learning process.

In this section, I will define learner-centered approach to learning and discuss how it impacts English teaching. In student-centered learning, students are active participant in their learning; they learn at their own pace, and use their own strategies; they are more intrinsically than extrinsically motivated.

Learner-centered approach develops learning how- to- learn skills such as problem solving, critical thinking, and reflective thinking. Carl Rojers, the father of client-centered counseling, is associated with expanding this approach into a general theory of education. In the school system, the concept of child-centered education has been derived, In particular, from the work of Froebel and the idea that the teacher should not interfere with the process of learning, but act as a guide Simon, Role of learner: Learners are active as oppose to passive recipients to knowledge.

They may assume a decision-making role in the classroom and often decide what to be learned. They can also produce materials and provide activities for the classroom. Role of teacher: The teacher acts as a guide. Objectives: The objective of learner-centered approach is to help learners discover their own styles, to understand their motivation, and acquire effective study skills that will be valuable throughout their lives. How learner-centered approach impacts English teaching.

Learner-centeredness as an approach to education aims at developing in each learner a sense of responsibility for his or her own learning and managing all related processes as early as possible. It means listening to what the needs of the learners are.

The teacher as a facilitator may focus on providing guidance and support to learners who seek to meet specific learning goals in a learner-centered environment. Burge advocates different components of implementing learner-centered approach to learning e.

The unfavorable factors may act as destructing or barriers in the process of learning. The learner must be given some choices concerning the course content and process without the course loosing academic rigor or coherence. This academic rigor must be specified in the course and learners should be helped in understanding as to how his choices contribute to effective learning. There should be relationships between theory and practice i. Individual diversity of the learner should be kept in view.

We need to know different support mechanisms i. The estimated levels of development reached by each learner have to be known. Their developmental dimensions may include ego, psychological, cognitive, physical and moral along with their theoretical and practical complexities. The learner is viewed as a complex interactor with past, present and future Burge, Their varying educational backgrounds, work experiences, learning styles and present life situations all have much to contribute in the process of effective learning.

Learner's life experiences should be related to all aspects of learning processes, course design, curriculum choices and instruction etc. Evaluation methods and support services should also take the diversity of the learner into account. The principles of developing learner's understanding of his own learning style and process come to the fore in the learner-centered approach. The learner needs to be able to select as to which text or content may be appropriate for his specific needs Hoven, How to teach in classes with mixed abilities and individual differences In this section, I will present some effective ways for instructors to follow in order to provide an optimal learning environment for every student.

It means that instruction focuses on the interaction methods of both teachers and students and can be run by a variety of activities, sequences of tasks, and topic orders to be practice. Giving appropriate instruction in the classroom is necessary to develop teaching and learning process.

From the part of teacher, teaching may be effective accepted and from part of students, learning may be more effective process to gain the maximum progress based on learning objectives because an appropriate instruction is applied in the classroom.

Willis stated that the rapid progress of students and the high standard of attainment can be reached by giving the appropriate instruction in learning.

Using the two terms teaching and learning shows the flexibility of teacher roles in the classroom. Teaching may cause learning. It means learning occurs because of teaching process. Learning is a feedback to improve teaching.

In short, Moore concludes that learning is the implication of teaching. Teaching, according to Chambers and Gregory is a complex of activities, strategies, mechanisms, invitations, stimuli and rhetorical ploys designed to help students learn and to become better learners. Although two closed terms have a slightly different meaning, it would be a burning issue of shifting role of teacher from teaching to learning.

This issue, as stated by Stern , is expected to bring great chance in teaching and learning process by arranging roles of teachers from teacher-centered instruction to learner-centered instruction although it is flexible. Flexibility can be arranged if teachers have knowledge about the heterogeneity of students in the classroom.

Flexibility means giving ample chance for students to practice their knowledge and skills learning , but when they find difficulties, teachers require helping them to overcome their difficulties teaching.

What is Individual Differences, Causes & Types of Individual Differences

To browse Academia. Skip to main content. By using our site, you agree to our collection of information through the use of cookies. To learn more, view our Privacy Policy. Log In Sign Up. Download Free PDF.

In this article we will discuss about:- 1. Definitions of Individual Differences 2. Types of Individual Differences 3. Causes of Individual Differences 4. Role of Individual Differences in Education. This study classifies individuals by age, traits, sex, race, social class and so on, and observes the differences within and between those groups. Physical, mental, social and cultural differences etc.

Include Synonyms Include Dead terms. Peer reviewed Download full text. It is important for teachers to know variables such as physical characteristics, intelligence, perception, gender, ability, learning styles, which are individual differences of the learners. An effective and productive learning-teaching process can be planned by considering these individual differences of the students. Since the learners' own learning speeds and interests vary, these characteristics should be taken into consideration by the teacher.

Concept of Individual Differences

Learning and Individual Differences is a research journal devoted to publishing articles of individual differences as they relate to learning within an educational context. The Journal focuses on original empirical studies of high theoretical and methodological rigor that that make a substantial scientific contribution. Learning and Individual Differences publishes original research. Manuscripts should be no longer than words of primary text not including tables, figures, references.

Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. Nazimuddin Published This Paper explores the concept of individual differences particularly educational Settings. This paper explained in a concise way regarding the meaning, types, determinants, etc of Individual differences among the people.

Individual Differences in Learning and Memory

Individual variation is a universal phenomenon. Such a similarity or difference between persons reveals individual differences in the early s.

Guide for Authors

Interest may refer as a motivating force that impels us to attend to a person, a thing, or an activity. So in educational field differences in interest means you observe some students like a particular subject, teacher , hobby or profession than other. Difference in attitude is psyche related to some thing. Few learners have positive attitude towards a specific topic, subject, and profession than other.

Когда запыхавшийся сотрудник лаборатории безопасности завопил о вирусе, Стратмор, столкнувшийся с ним на лестнице служебного помещения, попытался наставить его на путь истинный. Но Чатрукьян отказывался прислушаться к голосу разума. У нас вирус. Я звоню Джаббе. Когда он попытался обойти Стратмора, тот преградил ему дорогу. Лестничная площадка, на которой они стояли, была совсем крохотной.

Capacity Differences

Обычно лучистые и ясные, сейчас его глаза казались усталыми, тусклыми. Сколько я уже тут кручусь. Однако считать ему не хотелось. По профессиональной привычке поправив съехавший набок узел галстука, он повернулся к писсуару. Он подумал, дома ли Сьюзан. Куда она могла уйти. Неужели уехала без меня в Стоун-Мэнор.

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